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Below are the 20 most recent journal entries recorded in BTRIPP's LiveJournal:

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Friday, May 27th, 2016
8:32 am
"All day on channel nine"?
This one's been lingering in my to-be-read piles for quite a while, and I really am not sure when it was that I picked it up. I'm pretty sure it was a dollar store acquisition of the “oh that looks like it might be interesting” sort, and with only a buck invested in it, having no particular urgency to get into it. However, I was in a point in my reading where something along the lines of this seemed an appealing thing to throw into the mix, so I got into it.

As is frequently the case with dollar store books, I didn't have much of an expectation of what this was going to be like, and it wasn't exactly how I was imagining it. Listen To This was written by Alex Ross, who has been the music critic for The New Yorker for the past 20 years, and had come to them from a similar position with the New York Times, which are pretty impressive credentials (albeit ones that hadn't gotten him on my radar previous to reading the book). This is primarily a collection of pieces written for The New Yorker from 1997 through 2008 (the book came out in 2010), but his notes indicate that most of the 19 chapters are “based” on those articles, but are expanded and edited here, so it's not just a “best of” collection of his magazine work.

Aside from being a look at various musical subjects, there doesn't seem to much of a “theme” here, Ross doesn't seem to have a particular axe to grind, nor does he press any specific style. Instead, this reads like a collection of individual explorations into a wide range of topics. Of course, this makes it a bit of a challenge to whip up a review that gives attention to everything in here … but I'll try to give you a good sense of it.

The first chapter starts out with a look at the author's relationship with music. It's a bit of a shocker to hear from somebody born as recently as 1968 that: “I am a white American male who listened to nothing but classical music until the age of twenty.” (especially as I started my own rock record collection at age 6). He continues his self-confession with: “By high school a terrible truth had dawned: I was the only person my age who liked this stuff.”, and adds a cringe-worthy note that following having been dragged off to see Pink Floyd's The Wall movie, his one take-away seemed to be “that one passage sounded Mahlerian”. His baptism into rock came in college when he would hang out at the school's radio station, with a bunch of “cerebral punk rockers”, who introduced him to Pere Ubu and Sonic Youth. He uses this personal story line as a basis of taking a historical look at what was popular in music in different times, and uses that to reflect on the place of classical music in today's culture.

From there he moves into a piece called “Chacona, Lamento, Walking Blues: Bass Lines of Music History” which starts in 16th century Spain with “the chacona, a sexily swirling dance that hypnotized all who heard it”, moves back to the middle ages, and the evolution of musical expressions of melancholy and “laments”. This is the first place where the author starts to lose me, as I'm technically fairly musically illiterate, and he picks apart the music in terms and contexts that I just don't have any way to follow. He does, however track these elements into the blues, and ultimately into modern popular music, from the Mary Poppins soundtrack to the Beatles, Bob Dylan, and many others on the way to Led Zeppelin's Dazed and Confused … yes, really.

He next has a look at music recording, which he argues changed music from its earliest use. The famed John Philip Sousa is quoted as testifying before Congress in 1906 that “These talking machines are going to ruin the artistic development of music in this country” (in that nobody will make their own music if they can just play a recording), and the author traces out the changes in how orchestras perform, with various national styles on particular instruments falling away to the one most amenable to the recording technology of the day.

This is followed by an interesting look at Mozart, both personally, and his musical development. The next chapter (somewhat jarringly) moves into a piece about the band Radiohead, and the book then subsequently shifts to a discussion of the Finnish composer and conductor Esa-Pekka Salonen, and his work with the Los Angeles Philharmonic, and other institutions. From here it shifts back to another classic name, this time Schubert, and then again to a modern act in Björk. At this point the author shifts to a wider stage, and considers classical music in China, particularly as seen around the time of the Beijing Olympics, which he appears to have been covering. He stays on the road in the next chapter, and visits Alaska and idiosyncratic composer John Luther Adams who tries to live “outside culture” in that huge state's sparsely-populated interior. Next it's back to a familiar name, with the life, music, and the performance/recording history of Giuseppe Verdi, including reminiscences of where Ross had heard performances of his music (from New York's Central park to Genoa, Italy). Although the book is not broken into one of its sections here, the next piece, about the St. Lawrence Quartet, seems to close out this part of the book, as the next chapters seem to have a bit different tone.

The shift happens (for me, at least) when he gets to the “Edges of Pop”, where he covers a disparate group of acts, from drag-themed Kiki and Herb, to jazz figure Cecil Taylor being compared with Sonic Youth, a brief nod to Frank Sinatra, and then into a look at Kurt Cobain … quite a mix for one chapter. This then shifts to a chapter on the sorry state of musical education in the U.S., and those who are trying to fix what can be fixed given the low priority the Arts have in that sphere in recent decades. Speaking of musical education, I don't believe I'd ever heard of the next subject, described as “The Voice of the Century”, Marian Anderson, whose defining moment seems to have been a 1939 performance on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial – a venue arranged by Eleanor Roosevelt after the DAR wouldn't let a black woman perform at Constitution Hall (this episode also plays a significant role in part of another book that I'm currently reading). This is followed by what seemed to be a rather odd look at a summer gathering in Vermont called Marlboro Music (held at the tiny college of the same name – which comes from the local town, not the cigarette brand), and its director Mitsuko Uchida … this is a retreat that is much sought after, with a tiny fraction of those applying getting accepted to attend.

I'm not clear on why the book's three sections are set up the way they are, but the last three chapters are in the third part of the book. The first of these is the author following Bob Dylan to various performances, from big downtown arenas to rural agricultural fairs, and considering the strange journey that Dylan's been on. Next is a brief chapter on the opera singer Lorraine Hunt Lieberson, which, while interesting in its details sort of missed me in terms of having a point. Finally, the book goes back to a classical composer, in this case Brahms … not exactly a “big finish” for the book.

One useful (and still active) aspect to Listen To This is the companion site with pictures, videos, audio files and other add-ons that I wish I'd have encountered when actually reading through this (I was frequently looking things referenced in the text up via YouTube on my phone), the URL is here if you want to check that out. This is one of the best companion sites I've encountered, and I highly recommend using it in conjunction with the book as you go through it (although it's pretty informative in and of itself – kudos to whoever developed that, if not the author!).

While the hardcover of this appears to be out of print (new copies can be had for under $5 via the new/used guys), the paperback is still available, so should be something you could get from your local brick & mortar book vendor. While it's not exactly “my thing”, the subjects of Ross' pieces were varied enough that it kept being interesting, and there's plenty there to recommend it just on a “learning stuff I didn't know” basis.

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Thursday, May 26th, 2016
8:41 am
One of the greats ...
This was another Dollar Store find … I was down in Urbana (home of the University of Illinois) to pick up my engineering student daughter at the end of her semester, and we swung by to grab a couple of things “for the road”. I, of course, had to check out the book section and found five books of interest (oddly, mostly on a “culinary” theme). I don't know how these all showed up there, and, in particular, the subject of this review – Auguste Escoffier's Memories of My Life – seemed strangely out of place. Not only is this a large-format hardcover, but it's also a 1996 first edition … which means that it had been kicking around for twenty years. Now, I'm used to getting “vintage” books at things like the Newberry Library book fair, or box sales at Open Books, but those are typically there via estate liquidations (i.e. “dead people's books”), and this seems to have been in various retail channels for a long time (including stickers three deep over the dust jacket's original UPC).

As I no doubt have mentioned, I grew up in the orbit of the food biz, and the name Escoffier was familiar in its own right, but was bandied about a good deal at home, as my Mother had been a long-time member of Les Dames d’Escoffier, and a recipient of their “Dames of Distinction” award. Needless to say, seeing Escoffier's autobiography sitting there for a buck was NOT something I was going to take a pass on!

As with most dollar store finds, this was a bit of a “pig in a poke”, with my not having any particular expectations going in, but I sort of anticipated a bit of a dry “book of its time”. While Escoffier had been putting together a memoir intended for the cooking profession, this was assembled from a lot of additional materials that his family had collected following his death (at age 88) in 1935. The book as it stands, however, is based on a far more recent translation of these materials by a great-granddaughter, Laurence Escoffier, and I'm thinking that she imbued the English version with more than a soupçon of modern tone, making this a far easier read than it might have been.

Escoffier was born in 1846 on the Mediterranean coast of France, between Cannes and Nice, and at 13 he was instructed that he was to be a cook at his uncle's restaurant in the latter. He took to this as a discipline, and from his earliest years (barely six months into his training, he came up with a design for serving platters that would eventually be produced by Christofle as “Escoffier Plates”) he was dedicated to the craft. He writes of his focus:
      My natural curiosity also encouraged me to look for anything that could develop and embellish the art of our national cuisine. My aim was twofold: to increase awareness abroad of French products and of ways to use them.
By the age of 19, he had found his way (through various recommendations) to Paris, and worked at Le Petit Moulin Rouge, where he stayed for five years prior to his being called up for the Franco-Prussian war, and some subsequent military cooking. There are fascinating stories of his work at this time, as French military officers were typically nobility, and had their own staffs, including chefs. At one time his part of the army is captured and spent some time as prisoners of war in Germany (this comes back as an uncomfortable point when he later hosts the Kaiser). Upon his return to Paris, he becomes the head chef at Le Petit Moulin Rouge, then at a series of other postings, eventually ending up at the Grand Hôtel in Monte Carlo, where he meets hotelier César Ritz, and becomes his go-to Chef for major projects such as the Savoy Hotel and later the Carlton Hotel in London, where he creates some of his most famous dishes.

A lot of the book focuses on specific events and dinners produced for “big names” over the years, including menus, and the occasional recipe. There are photo pages that include reproductions of some of these (very ornate) menus, and pictures of a few of the “notables” and venues discussed. Two things that are basic in today's restaurant world were introduced back then: one, the prix fixe menu, and the other being service “à la russe”. In discussing his book for chefs, the Guide Culinaire, which he dedicates to his friend Urbain Dubois, he notes:
      One of Dubois' greatest contributions was the important role he played in the growing use of the so-called service à la russe, that is to say the presentation of dishes one after the other, rather than the service à la française that was then popular, with all dishes being presented together at the beginning of the meal.
One of the most shocking (from the modern perspective) aspects of these menus is how extensive they are … there is a section here where Escoffier looks back to a time when things were even more extravagant … no doubt reflecting the excesses of the nobility:
      Current fashion and habits are such that one can only spend one hour, or an hour and a half, at any single meal.
      For the last thirty years, even the most substantial menus have generally been made up of only one or two soups, an hors d'oeuvre (hot or cold), a fish, two entrées, a roast, a cold meat, a salad, one or two accompanying vegetables, two hot or cold sweets, and various desserts.
      In the old days, depending on the importance of the host and the number of his invited guests, the expected menu consisted of an incredible number of dishes that we can hardly imagine today … between thirty and sixty dishes, not to mention the desserts, which were often just as numerous.
Needless to say, I find it amusing that what his menus encompass are things that “we can hardly imagine today”, let alone those of “the old days”! Another subject I found interesting was the extensive use of truffles (the fungus, not the chocolate). Now, I like truffles as well as (or more than) any other gourmand, so I was drawn to this side note (by the translator?) on these:
Truffles reached their apogee in France in the nineteenth century when nearly every grand meal featured at least one dish that was bejeweled with the prized black diamond. Such liberal use of truffles today is impractical, not only because of their price but also because of diminished supplies. In 1892 two thousand tons of truffles were harvested in France; today only 25 to 150 tons are gathered annually.
As a fan of the truffle, it's a sad thing to think that we only have a tiny fraction of them available compared to Escoffier's heyday (and there certainly has been a lot of effort and money dedicated to finding ways to cultivate truffles, beyond planting spore-innoculated saplings and waiting a decade to see if any fungus forms on their roots).

Oh, and while there are recipes here, they are definitely targeted to a professional kitchen's staff, and not to the home cook. There are some that one might successfully produce at home (such as the famous La Pêche Melba, probably minus the carved ice swan it's supposed to be served in, commemorating the opera singer's appearance in Wagner's Lohengrin that enchanted Escoffier), but most involve multiple pre-prepped sauces, etc., and are frequently addressing quantities like “add about 50 frog legs that have previously been washed, drained on a towel, and rolled in flour” that might not be practical for the home cook.

The book continues through Escoffier's extensive career, in France, London, on a number of ocean liners, and at the Ritz-Carlton in New York. His recounting of events of the First World War as “seen from London” is also interesting, and that chapter starts out with another side note which tells of a fascinating, if peripheral, historical confluence:
On the night Germany invaded Belgium in August 1914, Lloyd George and Winston Churchill were dining at the Carlton. Ho Chi Minh, the future communist leader of North Vietnam, was working in Escoffier's kitchen preparing vegetables.
The narrative goes up to 1930, five years before his death, and I guess his family decided to just let it go at that. There is an interesting timeline in the back, which tracks the highlights of his life against world and (generally unrelated to anything in the book) American events, plus a very useful glossary, and some other bits and pieces (photos of letters, brief biographies of people important in his life, etc.) as well.

Escoffier's Memories of My Life appears to be long out of print (again, I'm amazed to have found this where I did), but “very good” copies are available for under ten bucks on the new/used channels of the on-line big boys. If you have an interest in fine dining, the restaurant biz, or might be wanting to learn about a notable man who rose from nothing to be lionized by his nation and the world, this is something you might well want to track down.

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Friday, May 13th, 2016
10:07 am
Seven f'n YEARS ...
{Hey, a kind of rambling thing approaching 1k words - I'd initially spewed this over on FB, but figured it was "in the ballpark" for a post here, so I'm doing a rare cross-post!}

Well, Sunday will be the 7th anniversary of the end of my last "real job". I have, with a few brief gaps (when I was nominally employed for a few weeks, or deeply involved in a non-paying "project"), been solidly looking for work for SEVEN YEARS.

Frankly, I don't know why I consider my time at Simuality/Liminati as a "real job", as, for the first half of it, I was being paid a pittance (everybody was drawing the same very low salary out of the "angel" start-up investment), and, for the rest of it, I was getting "paid in equity", making it no different than several other things since. I guess the difference was that I got up in the morning, got on the El, rode up to Evanston, went to an office, and sat at a desk M-F ... a routine that has been significantly missing in my life for the past 7 years.

I have described these non-paying gigs as my "all hat, no cattle" work ... while the phrase is being used fairly out of its original context (disparaging folks who liked to project a "cowboy" image, but didn't have any livestock), it seems to fit for a "job" that has all the look-and-feel of actual employment minus that one essential thing - a paycheck.

My wife HATES these. In her opinion I'm just a sucker who keeps getting USED by people. Maybe she's right ... however, my "justification" for getting pulled into these situations is that I'd rather be keeping my skills up on SOMETHING, rather stewing in my own juices while sending out hundreds and hundreds (I think I'm up to having applied for nearly 3,000 jobs since 5/15/09!) of resumes - with nothing to show for it.

This came rather abruptly to mind this morning because I got up to work on one of MY "projects" - developing a spreadsheet of all of my reviews - and I was just in May of 2009, when that particular piece of poop hit the fan.

To digress a moment ... the spreadsheet project is complicated because of my wanting to update all those (700+) reviews with new Amazon affiliate links. Back when I ran Eschaton Books full-time, I had an Amazon affiliate account, but in the ensuing years, the Vile Kleptocracy of Illinois went to war with Amazon to try to squeeze out sales tax (one of five states doing so), and in response to this, Amazon pretty much "picked up its toys and went home", cancelling all affiliate deals with residents of Illinois. In recent years, Amazon and the assorted states did come to some agreement (which is why we now have to pay tax on most purchases from them), and the Affiliate program was opened up again for Illinoisans. While it's only pennies coming in when somebody buys a book through one of my links, I still WANT those pennies, so I've been going back through all my reviews (both on the review site and my main blog) and updating the links.

Since I'm "getting into the code" already, I'm also updating my "sig" on those, which is double-broken at this point - both the link (pointing to my long-gone Ning site), and the graphic (formerly hosted at the disappeared WebLogImages site) being broken.

So, this is to note that this isn't just "sticking 700 entries into a spreadsheet", as the entire cycle of opening up the files, getting the information, adding it to the spreadsheet, getting the new affiliate link from Amazon, adding that to both versions of the reviews, updating the sig code, etc., etc., etc., takes 5-10 minutes per, and is very much in the "brain numbing" category, so I'm only able to do a couple of months at a go ... resulting in the project dragging on and on and on (and I'm currently only back as far as April '09, when the reviews go back to January '04).

One of the things I'm trying to do with the spreadsheet is set up either a large "directory" of what's on the site, or (ideally) make a search module that will be interactive with the info I'm accumulating. Last weekend it became obvious to me that it would be VERY useful to have an alphabetical listing of authors and titles in my review books (I was at an event with an author whose book I'd reviewed last year and was wanting to show it in the 2015 book, but it took a lot more effort than it should have to find that). Fortunately, with the print-on-demand tech, this is something that I could add in the books ... which is pretty cool.

Anyway, paging "back through time" has been fairly awful. I'm not really READING most of these entries, but I'm having to page back through a lot of "very triggering stuff" as I try to get to the book reviews in my regular blog. It's a very visceral reminder (like I needed one) of how HELLISH my life has been over the past decade.

Sucks to be me.

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Saturday, May 7th, 2016
10:11 am
Cross one thing off the "bucket list" ...
So, last night I got to see Bob Mould in concert up at the Metro. I have been a fan since when Hüsker Dü's Zen Arcade came out in 1984 ... thirty two years ago. I believe I have all of Bob's main (albums, not EPs or singles) discography at this point, and have been enjoying his latest, Patch The Sky since getting it from Amazon on its release date (that's a cool service they have - if you pre-order a CD, they'll get it to you on the official release day!) a month or so back. However, I've never been able to catch him live.

There have been times (back when I was traveling as a PR exec), when I'd be in some place like St. Louis, and Bob would be performing ... on the night of the day I was leaving ... or I'd hear that he was going to be playing here either after the fact, or after the show had sold out. I never got to see Hüsker Dü in the nine years they were together (although I've had a few friends from back then who were close to them - so I should have been able to figure that out), but I've ended up seeing Grant Hart 2-3 times (I've got all his records too).

So, back in January when they announced last night's show, I jumped on it ... and the ticket print-out has been hovering there in my stack of "things I'm going to" for MONTHS at this point.

Back in the day, I used to live at the clubs, but it's been quite a while since I've been up to Metro (the last time was, I think, for Sisters of Mercy several years back), and I've really not being going out to concerts much (with the exception of getting to go to Riot Fest to see Patti Smith and The Cure a couple of summers ago), so this was both a treat and a challenge (given the state of my bum knee).

I sort of "live Tweeted" the show via Instagram, with posts HERE, HERE, HERE, HERE, HERE, HERE, HERE, HERE, and HERE.

They, unfortunately, didn't get into my favorites (like the title cut of Black Sheets of Rain) from Bob's solo work, but he did delve into the Hüsker Dü material, including an encore featuring "Hate Paper Doll", "Love Is All Around" (the Mary Tyler Moore show theme), and closing with one of my faves - "Makes No Sense At All".

Speaking of which:

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Thursday, May 5th, 2016
8:16 am
Whoop De Whoop ...
Yes, thanks to Cinco de Mayo, it's an easy anniversary to remember.

May 5 is my LiveJournal "birthday" ... and I've been blithering around here for SIXTEEN YEARS at this point.

I was the 2,663rd account on LJ (see the animated icon I dragged up for the occasion), for whatever that's worth.

I guess this is called for, eh?

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Sunday, April 24th, 2016
11:23 pm
Glad THAT'S over with ...
I bought this book used a very long time ago, perhaps a decade, perhaps longer, and it's sat there on various to-be-read shelves, in to-be-read boxes, and amid to-be-read stacks of books, somehow untouchable. Why? It's freak'n 750 pages long, like 3 normal books. Plus, it's math, and as much as I like physics, I'm always hesitant to delve into too much math because my mental processing does not lend itself to the necessary discipline (or even bondage … waka, waka, waka). However, this was a “big deal” among circles I was at least in contact with (although it didn't come out until I was past college). Much as I held Lombard for years as an example of a suburban wasteland (eventually finding myself having to spend 2.5 hours each way on public transit commutes to a writing job out there for a period of time), this was something of a bête noire in terms of a “mountain too high to climb” reading project – a commitment that would no doubt totally screw up my reading patterns.

And it was.

I started reading Douglas R. Hofstadter's Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid at the beginning of January, and by mid-April, I wasn't quite half-way done. However, earlier this week I went on a journey that, over a 35-hour period, had me on a bus for 18 hours and hanging out waiting for a bus for another 8 hours, time that I largely devoted to trying to knock this beast down. I did not succeed in finishing it on my trip, but got close enough that I was able triage out enough “in between” times this week to get it read.

I wish I could say it was worth it, but I found this quite frustrating, on a number of levels. First of all, and this is (obviously) “on me”, I have never “gotten” music aside from as a listener, no matter how many attempts I've made, the whole “music theory” stuff just flies by me … and, as one would guess from the title, music (aka the “Bach” parts here) is about a third of the basis of the book. I am also (and, no doubt, relatedly) not particularly good with “pure logic”, something that the mathematician Hofstadter seems to think is a delightful game that all of his readers would love to play with … and invites said readers to “work out” various extremely vague (to me) structures and puzzles in bizarre (again, to me) codings (see pic at right for an example). What's worse is that the author tends to define his system of symbols once and then apparently assumes that “you've got it” and will go back to using it hundreds of pages later without any “catching us up” on it, even as little as “name checking” abbreviations like TNT when they crop up a book length past when they're initially defined (that's Typographic Number Theory, if you were wondering).

The book rotates between three different types of presentation. The most identifying one of these, and no doubt what got the book its fame, is what is referenced in a sub-sub-title added by its publisher: A Metaphorical Fugue on Minds and Machines in the Spirit of Lewis Carroll … discussions between various characters, beginning with Achilles and a Tortoise, with added others such as a Crab, a Sloth, and ultimately up to Hofstadter himself. As anybody who reads my reviews regularly will realize, I “have issues” with “teaching stories”, and these aren't even necessary (although being about a third of the book) features, having more the character of trying to present the material in a “cute” way that allowed the author to mess about with framing the logical questions being discussed in the other sections in a “Lewis Carroll” inspired format. Across the course of the book I tended to find these parts irritating rather than illuminating, but I am willing to cede the point that “your mileage may vary” on this, and that it could well be a “it's me” rather than “it's the book” here.

The other two “types” are where the author is going through the various symbolic systems (he has several, most of which are “cutesy” in that they're structured to reflect, as initials, to other elements in the material), which generally made no sense to me at all (and, again, this is likely due to my disconnect with that sort of symbolic thinking). And, finally, the parts where he's actually EXPLAINING what the book's about … like a regular book on a subject. Frankly, were the book just this latter material, I would have probably quite liked the book … which might have been only 350 pages or so of lucid prose. But, noooooo.

That “core conceptual arc” would have been fascinating, as it addresses a lot of intriguing issues on logic, consciousness, and artificial intelligence, but it's so munged up with the other stuff that it's rather difficult to follow. I'll try to pull out some of the more cogent bits here to give a sense of where this goes.

First of all, there's this Gödel guy … Kurt Gödel was a German mathematician whose “discovery involves the translation of an ancient paradox in philosophy into mathematical terms. That paradox is the so-called Epimenides paradox which is at its base the statement “This statement is false.”. This is, perhaps, the least convoluted part of it. Hofstadter goes on to say:
The Epimenides paradox is a one-step Strange Loop … but how {sic} does it have to do with mathematics? That is what Gödel discovered. His idea was to use mathematical reasoning in exploring mathematical reasoning itself. The notion of making mathematics “introspective” proved to be enormously powerful, and perhaps its richest implication was the one Gödel found: Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem. What the Theorem states and how it is proved are two different things. We shall discuss both in quite some detail in this book. …

Gödel's Theorem appears as Proposition VI in his 1931 paper “On Formally Undecidable Propositions in Principia Mathematica and Related Systems I.” …
here is a paraphrase …
All consistent axiomatic formulations of number theory include undecidable propositions.
The author refers to that last line as “the pearl” and goes on for several hundred pages exploring it, in the various approaches detailed above.

Of course, none of this is particularly straight-forward … the concepts, based on Gödel's mathematics, get dragged through the complex recursive musical structures of Bach's multi-voiced fugues, etc. (sometimes in excruciating detail), as well as being cast in reflections of Escher's convoluted graphics (which the characters in the dialog parts spend a good deal of time popping in and out of – acting out aspects of the mathematics in doing so), and getting the “Lewis Carroll” treatment at every hand, which seemed to more muddy the waters than anything. There are some truly fascinating bits here, like the discussion on translation, looking at approaches taken to convert Dostoevsky to English, or Jabberwocky into French and German … or how viruses use DNA to attack cells … but these tend to stand out because they're self-contained and not bounced around between conceptual frames!

One of the topics examined across the book is consciousness in humans and the possibilities of Artificial Intelligence. Obviously a book that came out in 1979 has a whole different perspective on computers than a reader approaching the information in 2016. At the time of its writing, the first models of the Apple, Atari, Commodore, TRS-80, etc. were out, but most of what is discussed here is far more primitive. On one hand, this is probably a good thing, as it keeps the discussion largely in the theoretical/mathematical side, but it's somewhat painful to read, when you realize that the capabilities of machines back then were so minimal that it's hard to even frame a comparison to current tech.

Needless to say, there's so much stuff going on in here, that it's a challenge to even try to summarize in a couple of thousand words. I was somewhat surprised that this eventually rolled around to something of an existential essay by the end of the book. There was a particularly cogent section called “Strange Loops as the Crux of Consciousness” that I think is worth taking a look at here:
      My belief is that the explanations of “emergent” phenomena in our brains – for instance, ideas, hopes, images, analogies, and finally consciousness and free will – are based on a kind of Strange Loop, an interaction between levels in which the top level reaches back down towards the bottom level and influences it, while at the same time being itself determined by the bottom level. In other words, a self-reinforcing “resonance” between different levels … The self comes into being at the moment it has the power to reflect itself.

      In order to deal with the full richness of the brain/mind system we will have to be able to slip between levels comfortably. Moreover, we will have to admit various types of “causality”: ways in which an event at one level of description can “cause” events at other levels to happen. Sometimes event A will be said to “cause” event B simply for the reason that the one is a translation, on another level of description, of the other. Sometimes “cause” will have its usual meaning: physical causality. Both types of causality – and perhaps some more – will have to be admitted in any examination of mind, for we will have to admit causes that propagate both upwards and downwards in the Tangled Hierarchy of mentality, just as in the Central Dogmap.
Oh, that last thing there … it's typical of a lot of stuff happening in the book, Hofstadter takes Crick's “Central Dogma of Molecular Biology”, spins out his own “version”of it as a “Central Dogma of Mathematical Logic”, and “maps” them against each other as the “Central Dogmap” … and, trust me, that's not the “worst” of the groaners that are in here – he weaves puns through the core structures of a lot of the key concepts here that, honestly, don't add anything to the coherence of the presentation (perhaps, as a college professor, the author had gotten into the habit of putting this sort of stuff into class materials to keep his students involved).

Again, I would have both enjoyed and gotten more out Gödel, Escher, Bach had it been cut down to the expository parts, with maybe some sub-sections dealing with the math/logic behind the assorted theoretical concepts involved. However, it's a “classic” in its own way (Amazon has it listed as the #1 best-seller in the “Artificial Intelligence and Semantics” category, for whatever that's worth), and I'm glad to have gotten it moved from the to-be-read limbo into the proverbial rear-view mirror. If you feel like you want to take up the challenge that this book represents, it can be had in various formats … used copies of the 1979 and 1989 editions are available, and the 1999 edition is still in print. Oddly, the used copies of the older editions (this may be a “text book” thing happening) aren't particularly cheap, and you'd only be saving a bit (with shipping) vs. the nearly half-off pricing of the new book.

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Saturday, April 23rd, 2016
3:00 pm
Going up against the "Democrat-Media Complex" ...
I have let a number of books linger in the to-be-read piles due to being certain that reading them, in the current political climate, would only get me very, very angry. However, after letting it sit there for a couple of years (after having found the hardcover at the dollar store), I finally got into Andrew Brietbart's Righteous Indignation: Excuse Me While I Save the World! … and I was right, it got me pissed off. First of all, I'm pissed off that he's no longer around, and I'm pissed off that I can't help but think his death (just hours before he was supposed to release a damning video about the current POTUS during the 2012 election cycle) was not from “natural causes”.

One of the most frustrating parts of reading this is that I would have loved to have worked for the man, and having that no longer be an option is depressing. This book came out just a year before Breitbart's death, so it really is something of a summation of his life. However, he was, obviously, not coming to this in that sense, but in an attempt to re-define the right-left battlefield:
      The left does not win its battles in debate. It doesn't have to. In the twenty-first century, media is everything. The left wins because it controls the narrative. The narrative is controlled by the media. The left is the media. Narrative is everything.
      I call it the Democrat-Media Complex – and I am at war to gain back control of the American narrative.
The autobiographical parts are interesting … he grew up in Los Angeles, surrounded by limousine liberals, and never really questioning that world view (although not being of the “limousine” crowd). He went to college at Tulane, down in New Orleans, selected because it was a notorious party school that still had a reputation for being a quality college, in a town that did debauchery like no other. There he essentially majored in "drugs, drinking, & gambling", barely making it through … only managing to get his diploma by throwing himself on the mercy of a professor (in a class that he was clearly going to fail) who saw fit to give him a C-, allowing him to graduate with a paltry 2.0 GPA. He returned to L.A. and started out with a job as a waiter (serving college pals who were now in med or law school), eventually moving into a “gopher” job in the movie biz (which, inexplicably led to an offer to be a producer in some B-grade film project).

He had, however, started to have some glimmerings of a conservative awakening … the Clarence Thomas hearings had been so blatantly unfairly stacked against the judge, that he started questioning the whole Leftist narrative. This, added to his job running around L.A. in a car (where he began to listen to AM talk radio), started to shift the needle to the right. His future father-in-law (TV's Orson Bean) also helped in this, suggesting that he give Rush Limbaugh a listen …
I was convinced to the core of my being that Rush Limbaugh was a Nazi, anti-black, anti-Jewish, and anti-all things decent. …

I turned on KFI 640 AM to listen to evil personified from 9 a.m. to noon. … One hour turned into three. One listening session into a week's worth. And, next thing I knew, I was starting to doubt my preprogrammed self. …

Most important, though, Limbaugh … created a vivid mental picture of the architecture of a world that I resided in but couldn't see completely: the Democrat-Media Complex. Embedded in Limbaugh's analysis of politics was always a tandem discussion on the media. Each segment relentlessly pointed to the collusion between the media and the Democratic Party.
Breitbart decided that he just couldn't keep working in the movie biz, and was desperately searching for something else … an old high-school friend told him (in the remarkably early year of 1992) “I've seen your future and it's the Internet.” - the eight words that Breitbart credits with changing his life. It took him until 1994 to really get himself established on line (I beat him to it by about a decade, but, hey), at which point he says he was “reborn” …
The Internet in those days was a free-for-all libertarian haven. I saw, even at the very beginning, that this was a new medium born of unwieldy individualism, of people who so desperately wanted to communicate with the world outside of the Democrat-Media Complex (whether they were aware of that construct or not), that they sought each other out in this technological wilderness. I recognized that for the Internet to exist, and for people to have such a massive desire to get on it, there had to be a driving force – and that driving force was the suffocating ubiquity of the Complex. Here was a place where freedom of speech truly existed, where you could say anything, think anything, be anything. It was no wonder that the first adopters of the Internet were the outcasts of the Complex, libertarians and conservatives.
One of the voices he discovered out on the 'net was Matt Drudge, who he found to be “fascinating, unique, and worldly, while also being oddly uncynical”, with that latter feature being what got to him:
With the Drudge Report and the Internet, I thought, Here, at least, is something that takes itself seriously. I was gaining nourishment from something outside of humor and cynicism; I'd found that reading about big issues and listening to other people's thinking about conservative ideas and morality and societal standards was actually fulfilling.
It was Drudge who introduced Breitbart to Arianna Huffington, who was looking to create “media-driven websites”, and hired him as her “Director of Research” … giving him access to LexisNexis (Ann Coulter's favorite tool). This brings the tale up to the point of the hearings regarding Paula Jones' lawsuit against Bill Clinton … the author was still somewhat willing to believe in the media at that point:
{reflecting on the Clarence Thomas hearings} I knew that if they were going to hold Thomas to that standard, they had to hold Clinton to that standard as well.
      The Clinton hearings became, to me, the living embodiment of the Democrat-Media Complex – and the inherent biases of the media were multiplied when cable news came of age during this era. With an enormous dedication of resources, the Complex went to work spinning Bill Clinton out of peril.
{Clinton} get away with sexual harassment … was the emblematic example of the media double standard, where a liberal could get away with anything as long as he toed the politically correct line. … He could get away with it because he was a liberal, and because liberals wanted him to get away with it. I wanted Clinton to pay, and I wanted his enablers to pay – I wanted to see them held to the standard that they had created to destroy their enemies.
Needless to say, nothing has changed with “the Complex” in the intervening years, as they've been all “see no evil” with the execrable Obama regime, and are totally in the bag for Hillery. It's one of the saddest things about this book – as we no longer have the author around to expose the vileness of the media and their leftist masters.

At this point, the book goes a tour of breaking stories, through the Clinton regime, into the Bush years, and on to the first term of the current administration. Breitbart is one of the few people I've ever seen who wrote about “W” in terms that I've held for a long time … the biggest problem with the Bush years was that he bent over backwards to work with the Democrats, and, like in the story of The Scorpion & The Frog, that's a no-win proposition. It's amazing how one can't publicly say any bad about the current administration, given what Bush was besieged with for eight years. Leftist hypocrisy has no limit.

One of Breitbart's biggest “coups” was the creation of the Huffington Post in 2005 ...
... The greatest victory for the right with regard to the site is that for years, conservatives argued that the New York Times, the most important journalistic entity in the United States, was radically left of center. And for years, the left denied it. But the Huffington Post was different – it was openly and loudly and radically leftist. When you read the Huffington Post, you knew there was a collective mind-set, a group-think. And the great irony was that if you looked at the front page of the Huffington Post on any given day and matched it with the front page of the New York Times, they were virtually identical. If you tested the philosophical DNA of the Huffington Post and the philosophical DNA of the New York Times, it was obvious to anyone that they were identical twins. They were fighting the same battles, and the bylines at both places were of people who went to the same schools, married the same kind of people, and voted the same way.
      They were all part of the same incestuous, elitist orgy. They were all part of the power structure of Hollywood, Washington, and New York. They were all from the same group of people who made tons of money, vacationed in the nicest places, flew first class – or private, and then dictated to the rest of America how to live “sustainable” lives. …
What follows is both fascinating and horrific … as the author takes a look at what enabled “the Complex” to get as massive and influential as it has become. He looks past the present-day funding by George Soros and back into the doctrinal underpinnings, back to Marx, “the Frankfurt School”, and others whose “mission was to dismantle American society by using diversity and 'multiculturalism' as crowbars with which to pry the structure apart, piece by piece”, and how these people managed to infiltrate the universities, the government, and especially the media. Here too is Obama's philosophical godfather Saul Alinsky … whose approaches Breitbart looks at closely. Frankly, Breitbart admires Alinsky on a strategic/tactical level, and goes into a good deal of detail on the “how” … noting that “Every successful … {leftist} movement in the United States since the 1960s has used Frankfurt School ideology and Alinsky rules.”. What is amazing is that he's able to take this and spin out a “pragmatic primer” for libertarian/conservative action, with a 13-point plan for countering “the Complex” with their own tactics. Brilliant … and such a shame that we don't have this man still fighting in the trenches for “the righteous cause”.

Obviously, I'm a libertarian, and so Breitbart is “preaching to the choir” when it comes to me … there is nearly nothing in Righteous Indignation that I'm not in full agreement with or at least in visceral resonance with. Of course, if you're a devotee of “the Complex”, your reactions to this will no doubt be quite different. This is one of those books that I wish that everybody would read, but I know those of a Leftist bent will reject it out of hand … which is too bad, as they most of all need to hear this side of things.

While I found the hardcover of this at the dollar store a couple of years ago, it is still in print, in a paperback edition, which you should be able to connect with at your local brick-and-mortar book vendor. The on-line new/used guys, however, have new copies of the hardcover for under a buck, and “very good” used copies of the paperback for as little as a penny (plus shipping). If what I've presented above sounds at all interesting to you … go get a copy!

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Wednesday, April 20th, 2016
5:09 pm
Oh, look ... more BOOKS!
      Yes, I was so happy to have gotten access back on my book review LJ (see here for all the gory details) at the start of the month, that I jumped right in on working on new books (the reviews I use are the ones from over there, which are ever so slightly different than the ones you see here - largely due to formatting, in that I intend the reviews here to be read in the "flow" of the journal, so are optimized for the main journal page, where the ones over there are optimized to be seen on the individual post's page ... and,oddly, LiveJournal displays things like the blockquotes quite differently in those different settings), and, within three weeks, I've managed to crank out TWO new volumes.

While not necessarily at the extremes, these are very much one of the smaller (43 reviews in 2013) and one of the larger (75 reviews in 2012) of the books that will be showing up in the series. Again, I've been churning out these reviews for 12 years, so there are quite a lot more to go, and the 2012 book is the first I've gotten to (the last of seven) of those years where I was reading and reviewing at least 73 books a year (with the most being 79). The first two years I was doing this, '04-'05, will probably be combined into one volume, since the total for those two years is less than that of the next-lowest year, 2014.

Of course, I've had such bad luck with my publications, that it's very hard for me to muster up any actual enthusiasm for these books as they come out (although I quite enjoy the process of making them, and think the printed volumes look great). While I certainly anticipate there being more of a market for the book review books than there is for the poetry (after all, these would make great "bathroom reading" books, with each review taking up 1-5 pages!), I am not holding my breath for massive sales to come rolling in, largely on the factor that all the material in these books is free on the web ... heck, you've been reading them all along right here!

However, I'm hoping to be able to push the concept that folks can "get conversant with" a whole bunch of books by buying my review collections, with a lot less effort than actually reading all the covered books. I know that's a pretty feeble selling point, but Readers Digest was a huge periodical based on a not-too-different concept. I'm trying to figure out a good way to package that idea in a Facebook-ad-ready format, and throw a few bucks in that direction. This, too, seems pretty iffy to me, but I've seen so many things singing the praises of FB advertising, and that it's "so easy" to "stick one's toe in" with just a few bucks, that I feel like I'm going to have to give it a shot. However, my experiences with advertising my wares over the past 20-25 years don't leave me in a psychological state to be particularly enthusiastic about that either, as I've spent a lot of money on nearly zero return over and over and over again, and I'm hardly in a position to support any sort of an ad program that's not at least making enough back that I'm breaking even. Arrrrgh ... FML (as the kids say these days).

Anyway, if you click on the covers, you'll be whisked off to the individual pages over on the Eschaton site for each ... they're also available, of course, over on Amazon, but, if one was to order some, I do get a significantly larger cut from sales made directly over on CreateSpace (where the "buy now" links on my site, naturally enough, point off to).

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Tuesday, April 12th, 2016
11:13 am
Banking on your unconscious mind ...
About ten years ago I took a hypnosis training course via the Hypnosis Motivation Institute (https://hypnosis.edu), which was very interesting, and in which I did very well (I guess my voice is pretty great for “inductions”), but I never got any traction with figuring out what to do with it (if I was any good at “selling myself”, I'd have a freak'n job), so it's another of those zillion things that I've studied but never got to apply. Back then I was picking up various materials that they had available, and one of these was Success is Not an Accident: The Mental Bank Concept by HMI founder John G. Kappas, Ph.D., along with its companion wire-bound “ledger”. As these were not part of the coursework, they sat on the “other desk” in my office, and sat there, and sat there … until I picked up the book a week or so back.

Frankly, I had never even seriously looked at this when I got it, and only had the vaguest idea of what it was about. What it is is a system that Dr. Kappas developed for his clients to allow them to work on themselves, programming the subconscious as “a goal machine”, which “represents the culmination of 47 years' experience in the field of subconscious and behavioral re-programming”. I also hate to admit it, but by the time I was finished reading the book, I was still at a loss about what I was supposed to do to put it into action. Fortunately, in the ten years since I picked this up, materials that at one point were purchase/subscription only are now available (posted by the organization) on YouTube. I would highly recommend watching this video to get the instructions laid out for using the Mental Bank (the video is 2 hours long, and the how-to stuff only comes in half-way through). While I really hate to depend on “ancillary materials” outside of the book I'm reviewing to make sense of the book, in this case I'm really recommending that. Heck, if one watched the video first and then read the book, it might make more sense all the way around!

Before I get into the book's content, I can't help (wearing my editor/publisher hat) but to bring up a bizarre “feature” of the book (at least in the printing that I have). In standard book lay-out there are names for the two facing pages, recto and verso (which mean “front” and “back”), with recto being on the right and verso on the left, and, nearly universally, the odd page numbers are on the recto. While the Foreword and Introduction have standard numbering, Chapters 1-7 have the odd numbers on the verso, only to return to standard numbering from Chapter 8 through the end of the book. As a “book guy” this drove me nuts, with the feeling I was in some mirror-reality reading experience. There's a great lyric by Peter Murphy about dealing with esoteric stuff: “Look for what seems out of place.”, and this is close enough to those realms that I kept wondering what the message was of having the book set up like this … not believing (in my editor hat) that this, if not intentional, hadn't been noticed (and thereby corrected) before ink hit paper. At this point I'm guessing that it's simply an “inexplicable error”, but it was a page-by-page distraction to me for 150+ pages of this 250-ish page book!

The Mental Bank Concept (or System in the video) is a way to “reprogram” your subconscious to change your “life script”. Now, if one is looking into a book like this, it is very likely due to being unhappy with some aspect of one's life, be that financial, relationships, health, whatever. However, one of the keystones of this approach is the extremely counter-intuitive insistence that each and every one of us is a success:
No matter how down-and-out you may feel, you have succeeded in carrying out your current life script. You were programmed by your past, and success in any endeavor means carrying out your subconscious plans. You have done this well. The only problem is that your subconscious script is not the pattern you want for your present and future. Thus, it is time to change that script so you will have the accomplishments you desire.
Admittedly, this is a fairly substantial leap of faith to take, but it is based on a half-century of hypnosis therapy, and it seems to work for a lot of people. This is also very regimented, and one is constantly encouraged to follow the steps exactly as presented. Now, I am one of the worst people as far as “doing things my way” (because, hey, I'm “the smartest kid in the room” and all that), but having read through this, I'm seeing how the “doing it as written” thing is probably a real good idea. Also, this requires a whole lot of discipline, as, for it to work, you have to do the process (which is generally said to take 5 minutes) every night at bedtime.

Back in my “drinking days”, that would have been a problem, but it's set up that way to get the information into your head just in time for the early phases of sleep. As woo-woo as a lot of this may seem, it does appear that there is some quite solid “brain science” involved in how this is structured. There is also a gauge as to what “type of suggestibility” is primarily active in the individual. Dr. Kappas defines two types, “emotionally suggestible” (responding to inferred suggestions) and “physically suggestible” (responding to literal suggestions), with the two types subconsciously accepting quite different modes of suggestion – so it's obviously very useful to know what your “type” is when coming up with the affirmations that are part of the process. There is a questionnaire and chart to determine which is your dominant mode. The following example is almost ridiculous (I'm assuming it arises from dealing with people in hypnotic states, not in general conversation), but it points to the differences:
If you ask an extreme literal person and an extreme inferred person the following question: “Would you tell me your name?”, the extreme literal person will say “Yes” while the person accepting inferences will give you his or her name.
To come back to the “life script” concept, the book has a number of examples of how various of Dr. Kappas' clients had gotten into patterns that were limiting. One example is a guy whose father earned what was, in the 60's, a very solid income (say $25,000) and that number got stuck in his head as “what success was”. However, decades later, that dollar amount wasn't an income that he could survive at, yet his subconscious programming somehow kept sabotaging any of his conscious efforts to get better pay. This can also work in reverse, with programming to “not be anything like” one's parents … in any case, most of the information in the subconscious “filter” is set from about ages 8-13 … dooming most people to lives dictated by their childhood experiences.

I suppose that a lot of people whose problems are not financial (wanting to find a life partner, wanting to lose weight, etc.), may have issues with the way the Mental Bank is set up, but, through a lot of trial-and-error, it was determined to use symbolic language to influence the subconscious, in this case the symbol $ and numbers. The way the program works is to fill out an old-style bookkeeping-like ledger with dollar values, and keep a running balance. I got totally confused with this (I'm horrible with financial stuff), until I watched the above-noted video. What you do is come up with your real-life income (or an equivalent if you're not currently pulling a salary), multiply by one factor for your Mental Bank income, come up with an hourly rate, and an over-all target (I've not started using this … was waiting to get through this review first … so these are still a bit hazy to me). Once you have your hourly rate, you make a list of tasks for which you are going to “pay yourself” (for instance, writing reviews would be something I'd have on my list), and at the end of the day, total up everything you'd done that was on the list, and come up with your daily “pay”. Oddly, any real-world income that had come your way is deducted from that total before it gets rolled into the daily balance.

One of the things that I have had most “resistance” to here is the insistence that all the writing involved in these daily ledgers (and the “contract” you write when you get started) needs to be in cursive longhand. Since I learned to type (back in 10th grade or so), I have maybe filled up two pages of cursive writing in the intervening decades … so the argument that this is a “direct route” into one's subconscious seems to be somewhat iffy to me, as I'm going to have to re-learn how to write in script to work this!

I suppose the key part of how the Mental Bank program functions is that the subconscious doesn't make a distinction between real income, and symbolic income, so that it just sees that it's getting rewarded for doing the tasks you have set up as things you're getting “paid” for. This is very much along the lines of research done for NLP and similar approaches, where the mind doesn't differentiate between things visualized and things actually rehearsed. Plus, putting this into play just before going to sleep, sets it up for the most suggestible times for the brain … which is augmented by daily affirmations – again, written out long-hand on the ledger every night – which is why that test for suggestibility style is important.

Although there are stories in the book about the Mental Bank producing some remarkable turn-arounds for numerous clients, in the video George Kappas (John's son, who now runs the HMI), describes the process as “dropping pebbles in a bucket of water”, where each pebble makes no noticeable difference, but over time there's no water left in the bucket. This is paralleled by one all-caps paragraph in the book which says: “Remember: changing your mental script after having it serve as a guide all your life is a big change!”.

As those who have read a lot of my reviews will no doubt recall, I am quite hesitant to actually do the stuff in most of the books I read – my being more interested in the concept or information than taking the time and effort to delve into something that I'm not particularly convinced will be of use. However, this is one that I'm planning to actually implement. While the “broad strokes” of the Mental Bank Concept sound pretty goofy in the “newage sewage” mode, looking at it in the details, and reflecting on similar mind research I've read, makes me think this has solid possibilities and could well be worth the 5-minutes per night (and re-learning how to write in cursive) it involves.

If you want to get a copy of Success is Not an Accident you should probably head over to the HMI site, which has the book available, new, at full cover price. Oddly, the on-line guys don't have it as a regular purchase, and the new/used guys have it for huge mark-ups, twenty bucks or more above what HMI is charging! Again, this is a bit odd, but I'm going to be “working the program”, so I guess that's a solid recommendation for the book … but if you're interested, I'd say you should probably check out the video first.

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Monday, April 11th, 2016
9:32 am
A blast from the past ...
I know that somebody highly recommended this book to me, but I have no clue who that might have been. I suspect it may have been somebody at one of the Transamerica meetings (where I've had other “business philosophy” titles enthusiastically suggested that I should read). In any case, I took the advice and picked up a copy of Robert J. Kriegel's If it Ain't Broke...Break It!: And Other Unconventional Wisdom for a Changing Business World from the Amazon new/used guys (hey, hard to argue with copies for 1¢).

I hate to say it, but the most notable thing about this is that it's quite old (from 1991 – heck, I was still a PR exec back then), and yet, except for the particulars (O.J. Simpson as a sport celebrity, Arthur Anderson as an innovating company, etc.) this doesn't feel overly dated … which no doubt speaks to the tone/approach of the book. As opposed to many marketing (or certainly technology/internet) books, this isn't full of “groaners”, but it does have a bit of a sense of coming from a different world … one, for example, without the web (Mosaic, the earliest WWW browser, wasn't released until 1993!), and where moving functions onto a computer is a highlighted achievement.

In the Introduction, Kriegel says:
      The one thing we can count on as we approach the twenty-first century is the certainty that rip-roaring change will challenge our understanding and shake up the basic foundations of the world around us, in every area. Whatever we do, and wherever we do it, everything – workstyles, economic conditions, technology, corporate structures, global communications, lifestyles, environmental responsibilities – everything is changing at a dizzying rate.
… which was certainly borne out by the past quarter century, albeit in ways that he probably had no inkling of at the date this was written.

However, the sense of on-coming change sets up the context for the (on the surface) somewhat counter-intuitive title, in the realization that trying to “keep things as they are” is almost certainly going to result in being passed by … so looking for ways to “break” things (as they've always been done) looks to be a promising strategy.

There are a couple of odd usages in here, one of which I'd like to address … “firehosing” … when I use the term “firehose”, it's typically in the sense of a massive amount of information coming fast and hard, like water out of a firehose … here the author uses it in different sense: “In an attempt to cling to the familiar and stay on safe ground {the would-be innovator}'s boss responded like a fireman hosing down a fire. He effectively “firehosed” her, dousing her ideas, enthusiasm, and spirit.” This usage comes up all through the book, and is related to the idea of having passion, or “a fire in the heart”. He goes on to frame this as:
      Firehosing is a common way we undermine or dismiss the daring strategy, the new idea, and even the simplest suggestion for improvement. What's worse, though, is how often we firehose our own dreams and creative ideas without knowing it.
The basic feel of the book (and probably why it's aged as well as it has) is very “coachy”, which makes sense as the author is a former athlete and coach for Olympic competitors, and is more about one's motivations than the specifics of the implementations. This is not, however, much of a workbook (which I take it the author does have for the various courses and corporate events he mentions doing), although there are the occasional fill-in-the-blank sections, and lists of questions and attributes.

Speaking of lists, this covers a lot of thematic ground over its 21 chapters, making a discussion of the whole somewhat challenging, so I think this is one of those instances where indulging in a list of chapter headings might well impart a sense of the “arc” better than my trying for some sort of summation:
1.   Surf's Up! … Embrace the Unexpected
2.   Put Fire in Your Heart
3.   Stoke It … Don't Soak It
4.   Dreams Are Goals with Wings
5.   Try Easy
6.   Always Mess with Success
7.   Playing It Safe … Is Dangerous!
8.   Don't Compete … Change the Game
9.   Sacred Cows Make the Best Burgers
10. Think Like a Beginner
11. Strange Bedfellows Make Great Partners
12. Take Risks … Not Chances
13. Fear Tells Lies … Break the Cycle
14. Mistakes Are a Good Investment
15. Failure Is a Good Place to Start
16. Plan on Changing Your Plans
17. Play Your Own Best Game
18. Don't Look Where You Don't Want to Go
19. Like It? Log It!
20. Joy Pays Off
21. Breaking Out
Needless to say, you can pretty much tell “where he's going” with the various chapters. Again, this works best when it's in the “general” rather than in the particular (aside from now-gone corporations he lauds here, there are quite a few “highly innovative” products, companies, and systems which I've never heard of, so the odds are pretty good they were something shiny that caught his eye at the time, but never actually made it). Of course, far older books have had on-going popularity (Napoleon Hill's “Think And Grow Rich” comes to mind), largely on being about process rather than specific situations, so it's in good company there.

One of the workshop exercises he outlines is that for determining one's own “sacred cows”, and he reports that (from over 10,000 participants), more than 90% reported spending more time doing things they disliked than those they liked, with the latter being predictably more productive activities:
      In almost every instance, doing the things you like – the challenging tasks, the creative work, the people work – is much more directly related to the bottom line of the organization than the paperwork.
... which he expands on, noting that this (paperwork) typically: “has more to do with mistrust, control, and monitoring than with motivating, innovating, and producing”.

One of the most useful/applicable bits here is the part about “The Fear Cycle”, which has five “links”:
Link I: Imagined Consequences
Link II: Fear Distorts Perception
Link III: The Physical Response
Link IV: Freeze or Frenzy
Link V: Worse Expectations Fulfilled
The most typical example of this would be in public speaking or doing an important presentation, although the same cycle can be traced out in almost any stress-inducing situation. Kriegel suggests that the cycle can be broken at any of these links, and charts out methods to address the fear at each (such as making a “worry list” and thinking through actions to take if any of the worse-case scenarios do manifest).

There were some interesting quotables in the “Mistakes” chapter, including quoting from an early Apple exec that “success does not breed success. It is failure which breeds success.”, which the author expands on with:
Mistakes help you to rethink, reconceptualize, and restrategize. The result of “going back to the drawing board” is usually substantially better than the original idea.
Another figure he throws out is good to recall … “the average millionaire entrepreneur has gone bankrupt 3.75 times.” (which brings to mind the mindless criticism of Trump's assorted failed ventures, as if only an – impossible – 100% success record is legitimizing!). There's also a number of stories here that talk of world-class winners who hardly started that way … including a trio of multiple Super Bowl champion head coaches who also manged to have worst-ever first-season records in NFL history.

As anybody who knows me in real life will attest, I have always had a lot of distrust of “plans” (even before I read about the Gurdjieff/Ouspensky “shock points”), and so I had a certain affinity for his “changing plans” section here. Kriegel notes (and I suspect he might be underestimating the effect):
      As unpredictable and uncontrollable as things are today, there are three things you can in fact count on. I call these the “triple double.” You can assume that anything new will invariably take twice as long, cost twice as much and involve twice as much work as you thought!

      Because of the triple double, one of the most difficult phases of any new project or venture is in the middle. This is where the unexpected has wreaked havoc on carefully developed plans. …

      Nowadays, uncertainty and surprise are normal. You can assume that is reality. You can also assume that the unexpected can't be controlled. What you can control, however, is your attitude towards the unexpected. ...
In the “Play Your Own Best Game” he has both one of the most useful parts of the book, and one of the things that most aggravated me. I'm a “confirmed generalist”, and the author foreshadows the irritating “ninja/rockstar/one-trick-pony” employment world by decades in insisting one needs to “be great at one thing”, which is just swell if you're a tennis prodigy who's been doing endless hours on the court since you still had your baby teeth, but it's an intellectual death for anybody with any breadth. Just sayin'. The beneficial thing here is a pretty handy “strength assessment”, which leads into a bit on “designing your own game”. Here's another point where the age of the book is telling … he's writing from a time when companies couldn't fill the slots they were wanting to hire for (leaving lots of employment options), as opposed to today when long stretches of involuntary unemployment are increasingly the norm. I suppose he also semi-predicts the “work for yourself (because nobody is hiring)” reality by sketching out this:
      It is more critical than ever to work in an area in which you are utilizing your strengths and natural skills. You'll not only be more productive and creative, but you will also enjoy what you are doing more, which will further increase your effectiveness.
Again, I suspect the “joy” section here is long past us in the current economy, where it is frequently impossible to get work with things one is skilled in, let alone something one likes … but he talks of a study of 1,500 people, where 83 percent were in jobs they chose for making money, and 17 percent were in jobs they loved. At the end of 20 years, 101 of the 1,500 had become millionaires, and all but one had come out of the much-smaller-sample “love the work” group. Interesting, but depressing at the same time (although I'm sure he's accuse me of being a “firehoser” for saying that)!

Anyway, I found If it Ain't Broke...Break It! a decent read, if not the “essential” book it had been pitched to me as. It covers a lot of ground, is light in tone, and full of enough interesting tidbits to keep the reader engaged, and is remarkably “evergreen” considering its vintage. I think it would have been better with more “workbook” aspects, but I guess that's what the author's ultimately selling, so he's not wanting to give it away. It appears like this might still be in print, but (as noted up top) you can get a “very good” used copy for as little as a penny (plus shipping) were you interested in taking this particular time-tunnel journey.

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Sunday, April 10th, 2016
10:51 am
A writing class with Mr. King ...
As I nearly exclusively read non-fiction books, I rarely have that experience (which appears to be fairly common among novel readers) of hitting a book that “I couldn't put down”, but this one has been about as close to that in at least my most recent several years of reading, with my having blown through it in only a day or so. This is also “an outlier” in that I have no idea how it got into my hands. I have no recall or ordering it, or buying it in any store … it was just there one day, and I was asking my daughters if it was something they'd be assigned (one could hope) from school. No clue.

So, I approached Steven King's On Writing: A Memoir of the Craft with a touch of trepidation (moderated by looking it up on Amazon and seeing massive numbers of 5-star ratings for it). While I'm certainly familiar with Stephen King, I don't believe I've actually read anything by him (given the whole "no fiction" thing, plus my only being minimally tolerant of horror/suspense), while having seen parts (I don't do movies much either) of a few films based on his books.

This book is a bit of an “odd duck”, the first third of it is pretty much an autobiographical essay in 38 parts, from his birth in 1947, up till 1981, which is pretty coldly honest about how much his life had “gone off the tracks” into substance abuse. Being a recovering alcoholic myself, I found the following having a certain resonance:
The idea that creative endeavor and mind-altering substances are entwined is one of the great pop-intellectual myths of our time. The four twentieth-century writers whose work is most responsible for it are probably Hemingway, Fitzgerald, Sherwood Anderson, and the poet Dylan Thomas. They are the writers who largely formed our vision of an existential English-speaking wasteland where people have been cut off from one another and live in an atmosphere of emotional strangulation and despair. These concepts are very familiar to most alcoholics; the common reaction to them is amusement. … Hemingway and Fitzgerald didn't drink because they were creative, alienated, or morally weak. They drank because it's what alkies are wired up to do. Creative people probably do run a greater risk of alcoholism and addiction than those in some other jobs, but so what? We all look pretty much the same when we're puking in the gutter.
King notes that he never stopped writing, but regrets not being able to recall the creative process of books like Cujo, about which he says: “I wish I could remember enjoying the good parts as I put them down on the page.”

The middle half of the book is the “meat” of it (at least in terms of it being a book about writing), broken into three sections: a very brief piece called “What Writing Is”, a somewhat larger section called “Toolbox”, and then the “On Writing” part. In the first of these, he argues that writing is telepathy, and he suggests that the reader has an ideal “receiving place”, as he has his preferred “transmitting place”, and notes that neither time nor distance are problems, as we can still read the thoughts of Dickens, Shakespeare, and even Herodotus when we pick up their books. King suggests a scenario with a red table cloth on which is a cage, in which is a rabbit, on which, in blue ink, is marked the numeral 8 (which I immediately was wondering if it were actually an infinity symbol – but King doesn't address that). He notes that everybody will see this in their mind slightly differently, the nature of the table, the color and material of the cloth, the type of cage, etc. He adds:
This is what we're looking at, and we all see it. I didn't tell you, you didn't ask me. I never opened my mouth and you never opened yours. We're not even in the same year together, let alone the same room … except we are together. We're close.
We're having a meeting of the minds.
… We've engaged in an act of telepathy.
So, there you know, that's what writing is (at least to Mr. Stephen King).

The “toolbox” section starts off with just that, a toolbox that had belonged to his carpenter grandfather, and had been hand-made by him. The story involves the author helping his uncle do some repairs, involving said toolbox. He spins this into an analogy:
I want to suggest that to write to your best abilities, it behooves you to construct your own toolbox and then build up enough muscle to carry it with you. Then, instead of looking at a hard job and getting discouraged, you will perhaps seize the correct tool and get immediately to work.
… You'll find you have most of the tools you need already, but I advise you to look at each one again as you load it into your box. Try to see each one new, remind yourself of its function, and if some are rusty (as they may be if you haven't done this seriously in awhile), clean them off.
He lists various things that should go into the different parts of the toolbox (he's envisioning a multi-level box with lots of drawers, etc.). He puts vocabulary and grammar on the top shelf (and even suggests a resource for the latter, Warriner's English Grammar and Composition - something I've added to my Amazon wishlist), before getting into details. He talks about active and passive verbs (try to minimize the latter), and warns against adverbs. He says “I'm convinced that fear is at the root of most bad writing.” and that without the fear you “can safely energize your prose with active verbs” and using basic “he/she said” attributes for dialog.

The next layer down in the toolbox is all that stuff in Strunk & White's Elements of Style (you do already have a copy of that sitting on the shelf somewhere, right?), plus an awareness of sentence and paragraph usage. King suggests: “In expository prose, paragraphs can (and should) be neat and utilitarian. … In fiction, the paragraph is less structured – it's the beat instead of the actual melody.” and “{The paragraph} is a marvelous and flexible instrument … You must learn to use it well if you are to write well. What this means is lots of practice; you have to learn the beat.”. This brings me to one slight quibble about the book … it really is about writing fiction. Of course, this is the author's niche, it's what he's done all his life … but there were points where I sort of glazed over as I really don't have that much interest in fiction, and he delves deep down a bunch of rabbit holes in pursuit of what seemed to me to be minutia about that side of things.

This brings us to the actual “On Writing” section. In one paragraph the author pretty much lays out what his intents for the project are:
      I am approaching the heart of this book with two theses, both simple. The first is that good writing consists of mastering the fundamentals (vocabulary, grammar, the elements of style) and then filling the third level of your toolbox with the right instruments. The second is that while it is impossible to make a competent writer out of a bad writer, and while it is equally impossible to make a great writer out of a good one, it is possible, with lots of hard work, dedication, and timely help, to make a good writer out of a merely competent one.
King starts the first part of this with another declaration:
If you want to be a writer, you must do two things above all others: read a lot and write a lot. There's no way around these two things that I'm aware of, no shortcut.
One of the “technical” questions he addresses is what is “a lot” for writing … he visits a story about James Joyce sometimes only managing seven words in a day, and notes others who spewed out reams of copy. As most of my reviews these days are clocking in at this level, I was very pleased to read that King's own output is pretty manageable: “I like to get ten pages a day, which amounts to 2,000 words. That's 180,000 words over a three-month span, a goodish length for a book ...”, now, I have no idea how he's measuring pages but 2,000 words in my wordprocessor runs to just 4 pages (the review I wrote just before this one was about 2,200 words), so I'm guessing he's doing editorial mark-up friendly (and magazine submission compliant) multi-line spacing, and there's no accounting for margins (as any highschool student who's submitted a paper with 1.5-2” margins will attest). Anyway, King writes in the morning, up to, and sometimes through, lunch. He has some definite ideas about writing environment as well … “most of us do our best in a place of our own. … it really needs only one thing: a door which you are willing to shut.” … he goes on quite a bit about “closed door” and public spaces for writing.

He launches into a lot of pages with examples of writing from his catalog, from other famous writers, and some less-famous, and gives opinions, suggestions, and dictates based on these, from writing whatever you want “as long as you tell the truth” to dissuading you from plotting (which brought to mind a counter-example of the stories of Frank Herbert's environment in which he penned the Dune books, which had everything graphically laid out exactly as he was going to write them). King equates books to fossils: “Stories are relics, part of an undiscovered pre-existing world. The writer's job is to use the tools in his or her toolbox to get as much of each one out of the ground intact as possible.” and says, in relation to characters, that his job is “to watch what happens and then write it down”. Sort of re-visiting the “telepathy” idea, he adds: “Description begins in the writer's imagination, but should finish in the reader's.”, and suggests a self-hypnosis like approach to putting oneself into an environment (his example is the Palm Too restaurant in NYC), and experiencing that in all one's senses – impressions that can then be translated to the page.

He spends a good chunk of the section talking about dialog, again in both his and others' works … which is probably where I tuned out a bit … but then ends up discussing symbolism. He notes: “It's that ability to summarize and encapsulate that makes symbolism so interesting, useful, and – when used well – arresting.”, but suggests that it's not something one should go into the writing with, but an element that can be polished in subsequent work-overs. He also sort of dismissed “theme”, saying that the writer spends all his time with the trees, and it's frequently left to others to go on about the forest, although he notes that it's another element that can productively influence one's second draft.

Speaking of which, he says that his books typically have “two drafts and a polish”, with the polish in the wordprocessor era coming to be closer to a third draft. He does point out that this is just his method, and compares that to Kurt Vonnegut's who “rewrote each page of his novels until he got them exactly the way he wanted them”, and when he was done with the book, it was ready for print. He also suggests when that first “door closed” draft is done, one should “let your book rest”, which he thinks should be a minimum of six weeks. Once that period of time is over, you can pick it up with fresh eyes, making the editorial re-working much easier. Once that set of edits is over, you can move to the “open door” part, where you're sharing the manuscript with significant others, trusted friends, and associates whose opinions of your writing you trust. Getting this sort of feedback can be a godsend, as frequently these others have whole libraries of more in-depth information on topics that you were writing about, and whose feedback can save you from deeply embarrassing factual gaffes (examples of which from his writing are of an appealingly voyeuristic interest).

He also offers up some “industry” stuff, like “Formula: 2nd Draft = 1st Draft – 10%” … a note he'd been given on a rejection slip when he was in highschool, that he still uses as a guide today. He goes into research, how to effectively craft and inject “backstory”, and some war stories about the business, with publishers, agents, and the coming and going of magazines.

The book follows with a second autobiographical piece, which follows his near-fatal accident in 1999, which happened to be right in the midst of his writing the first version of this book. He was off on his daily walk up in the backwoods of Maine, when, on the section of his usual route that took him along an actual road, he got hit by a van, and was very badly injured (one of his lower legs was “broken in at least nine places” and the report of the accident indicated that he was very lucky to have survived – a bit to the left or right and he'd probably not made it). This section is only peripherally about writing, except in how it helped his recovery:
I didn't want to get back to work. … Yet at the same time I felt I'd reached one of those crossroads moments when you're all out of choices. And I had been in terrible situations before which the writing had helped me get over – had helped me forget myself for at least a little while.
This section is followed by a couple of “Furthermore” parts, the first being quite interesting from a writer's perspective, as it's “showing us his work”, where he reproduces the first draft of a part of a story (4+ pages worth), and then displays his editorial mark-up on a double-spaced copy of the same text (he evidently works from paper with pen for making these changes), and then walks the reader through the “why” of all the edits … fascinating. The next two sections are lists of books that he's found appealing and/or useful, one that was in the original On Writing in 2000, and an additional (covering stuff he'd read between the two versions) list put together for the “Tenth Anniversary Editon”, featuring nearly two hundred titles between them (of which I've read only about half a dozen, and those mainly due to having been an English major back in the day).

My snarking about this being fiction-centric aside, it is quite an excellent book, and should certainly be “in the toolbox” of any writer. It's approachable both as a biographical work, a historical work (as far as the trade of fiction author goes, at least), and a workshop on writing with one of the most successful writers of our time. This is still very much in print (in hardcover, trade paperback, mass-market paperback, audio book, e-book, heck, it might be in braille for all I know), so should be reasonably easy to find it in the surviving brick-and-mortar book stores, but you can score a “very good” copy of the mass-market paperback for as little as a penny (plus shipping) through the new/used guys, so it's definitely something you should go get if you have any interest in the craft of writing.

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Saturday, April 9th, 2016
11:33 am
Turning threats into opportunities ...
I'm not exactly sure how Adrian J. Slywotzky's The Upside: The 7 Strategies for Turning Big Threats into Growth Breakthroughs got into my to-be-read piles, however, it has been hanging around for years, and I suspect that it was one of the titles I got in a big splurge a long time ago on a BN.com clearance sale. I'm also not quite sure why this suggested itself to get into my active reading list, except, perhaps, that it had been sitting around for so long, and I wasn't particularly inspired by anything else more recent.

This is, as one might guess from the title/sub-title, another of those “business philosophy” books, which I seem to have gotten an inexplicable taste for (after a lifetime of never reading any business books … I belive my first came a decade ago). While I found this an interesting read, and quite engaging, I only ended up with two bookmarks in it, and those within the last 10% of the book … which means that I'm going to be doing some “tap dancing” here walking through the book to find specifics to address.

I rather liked how the author launches into the theme of the book by going into military history for an example somewhat analogous to the type of “big threat” situation that would be later expressed in a business setting. Here, the story is of Union Civil War Colonel Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, in command of the 20th Maine Regiment, that was holding the hill Little Round Top against focused attacks by a much larger Confederate force during the battle of Gettysburg. His troops, reduced by about 1/3rd down to a mere 200, were out of ammunition, and were unlikely to survive another charge by the enemy. Chamberlain positioned a unit of sharpshooters (who, apparently, still had ammo), along a stone wall on the flank, and had his men prepare a bayonet attack. The sharpshooters surprised the Rebel troops with fire from an unexpected direction, and the 20th Maine's charge down the hill resulted in the Confederates retreating in panic. The Union troops ended up taking more prisoners than they had remaining men, and the exchange (and holding the hill), was credited as a key element to the Union winning at Gettysburg.

How is this a lesson? Well, another commander might have just defended the hill, but Chamberlain opted to make a desperate “out of the box” (if you will) counter-attack, resulting in what had to have been a surprising success. Much of the business stories in the book look at situations of companies taking actions against major threats in dynamically similar veins.

The author frames these threats to one's business as “strategic risks”, which differs from the following:
Traditional risk management focuses on three categories of risk that are widely understood: hazard risks (fire, flood, earthquake), financial risks (bad loans, currency and interest rate swings), and operating risks (the computer system goes down, the supply chain gets interrupted, an employee steals). Most companies have risk managers who specialize in handling these kinds of risk.
However, strategic risks target “one or more of the crucial elements in the design of your business model”. The author lists “seven major kinds of strategic risk your business can prepare for”:
1. Your big initiative fails.
2. Your customers leave you.
3. Your industry reaches a fork in the road.
4. A seemingly unbeatable competitor arrives.
5. Your brand loses power.
6. Your industry becomes a no-profit zone.
7. Your company stops growing.
These provide a framework for the stories detailed in most of the book. There are numerous interesting charts in here, but they don't seem to be a specific approach, but just a display template for the info … there is also an odd stylistic approach to “handicapping” the odds of a project's success as these cases are being considered – where there is, in the body of the text, small boxes with a bolded percentage number, reflecting what the chances of the thing is question working out were at various points (if I'm recalling correctly, in the examples given these only went up, if in small increments – say, 15% to 18%). Obviously, these are subjective numbers, and have the benefit of retrospect, given that most (if not all) of the discussed products were great successes.

One thing I found somewhat distracting is that the author tends to jump around … leaving one story to get into another, then switching back to the earlier one. This is likely to be that way to allow dealing with the same sorts of risks in different points in different products/companies, but it led to a bit linearity to the telling than had he stayed with one case study all the way through. Speaking of these, the first two are the Toyota Prius, and the Apple iPod. There are numerous steps in the development which are identified (such as the strategy of “creating excess options” by Toyota, which started with twenty engine designs … and this step boosted the odds from 17% to 20% … or Apple's licensing the player technology from another company that boosted their odds of success by a similar 3%). Slywotzky tracks the Prius up to 90% odds of success, and then flips over to discuss the Mars Pathfinder, and its fast/cheap model.

The book shifts from development to customer relations, and takes a look at Coach handbags, and a Japanese chain of music/video/book stores (that have since expanded into “lifestyle” product lines) called Tsutaya. In both of these cases the focus of growth was on amassing proprietary customer information, with their approaches conducting 10x the “conventional model” of customer interviews and marketing experiments. As both those companies are in the B2C zone, the author also adds in a B2B company, Johnson Controls, which went from making frames for car seats, to the entire automotive interiors, introducing the video entertainment system, etc., based on what the data showed the customers wanted.

The “fork in the road” risk brings up “synthetic histories” and “double betting” … and interesting example of the former is a description of what might well have happened to Microsoft had Bill Gates reacted differently to the report of some managers who had gone on a recruiting trip to Cornell in 1994 … which involved some of the first on-line systems – that the students were enthusiastically using. Gates, in the midst of launching W95, could have (as in the story here) brushed this aside, and Mosaic/Netscape could have ruled the world in a couple of years, but instead he recognized the risk to his product implicit in the Internet, and instituted a crash-development program resulting in Internet Explorer. A similar story is told of IBM … which in the first half of the last century was the main source of (mechanical) calculators and related machines. The son of the CEO, Tom Watson, Jr., saw the emerging computers (from Sperry-Univac) as a serious threat, and convinced upper management to invest in computer development as well … this was the “double-betting”, as both the calculator and computer lines were being worked on, and by the mid-60's IBM was dominating the latter business just as they had the former in previous decades. A number of other “horse races” are detailed in this, Blockbuster vs. Netflix, Motorola vs. Nokia, Lotus vs. Borland and WordPerfect, etc. The author identifies blocks to “double betting”, which are failure to face reality, misplaced strategic logic (to avoid “cannibalizing” one's flagship products, it frequently ends up that everybody but the “threatened firm” will invest in a new technology), and fear of spending (although one must “double bet” carefully).

The risk of a “unique competitor” is first framed in the basketball battles between Bill Russell and Wilt Chamberlain, which involves some fascinating analysis of the game, and Russell's quote: “Wilt played vertical, I played horizontal. I got to his favorite spot first … so that he'd have to shoot from an angle he didn't like.” This then spins into the Wal-Mart vs. Target story, focusing on Bob Ulrich, who went from a merchandising trainee at Target to CEO of its (then) parent company (Dayton Hudson, since sucked up by Macy's, like so many others). His strategy (among several) was to find “name” designers who were in a slump, such as Isaac Mizrahi, Mossimo Giannulli, and numerous others, and sign them for exclusive product designs … that had to follow a “3H” – Head/Handbag/Heart – philosophy … helping to also drive the “non-overlap” dictate that means that only 30-40% of products in a Target could be found (cheaper) at the local Wal-Mart.

There are some chastening data points in the chapter on “brand erosion” (especially for those of us who have been around a lot of decades), with once-dominant companies that are either gone or shadows of their former selves. Two companies which are specifically looked are Sony and Ford, which lost significant brand value in the period from 2000-2006 (27% and 69% respectively), and a table with the declining results of a bunch of other “household names”. This is countered with a look at Samsung, which, in that same period, more than tripled its brand value … here another detailed look with those percentage boxes interspersed. There is an interesting table here on “brand risk”, with 10 “types of failure”, a definition of each, and an example of a company that stumbled due to that particular issue.

The “no-profit zone” largely deals with competition and collaboration … with examples like Steve Jobs convincing the music industry, which was in full battle mode against Napster, etc., to embrace the iPod's proprietary format, and the iTunes marketplace, and the various European manufacturers who came together to create Airbus and compete with the major American aircraft manufacturers. Slywotzky also offers up a “synthetic history” of what might have happened had the assorted players in the auto industry come together ala the players in Airbus, in the mid-90's. In this fantasy, costs have plummeted, fuel consumption has dipped, and emerging economies are producing vehicles that are able to be sold for just a few thousand dollars.

In the “company stops growing” risk, there's another interesting chart here, tracking growth moves, and companies that made these work, as well as stories of a number (oddly, mainly European) companies that responded to stagnating growth with an array of approaches. There's also a piece about Proctor & Gamble's sudden decline in 1999 (their stock lost 50% of its value in one quarter), and how they fought their way back by 2004. Part of this was a new direction that asked “Are there things that professionals do for consumers that consumers could do for themselves?”, which not only resulted in products such as Crest Whitestrips, but also a focus on “consumer anthropology”, a research approach that P&G was dedicating as much as $200 million in 2006.

At the end of each chapter there are questions for companies to ask themselves to assess their level of risk in the various areas, and in the last chapter it looks at “reversing risk” and providing a number of tools to help one get there. These fall in these six main categories:
1. Identify and assess your risks.
2. Quantify your risks.
3. Develop risk mitigation action plans.
4. Identify the potential upside.
5. Map and prioritize your risks.
6. Adjust your capital decisions.
These include things like a “Risk Exposure Map”, a “Risk Profile Worksheet”, the “Strategic Risk Spectrum”, etc. There's a lot of “coaching” here as well, like looking at how companies are often structured to ignore risks, from “killing the messenger” who brings up bad news (like in the Microsoft “synthetic history”), overvaluing confidentiality, and “siloing” information. Slywotzky defines “three disciplines that can help management teams get consistently better at managing their portfolio risks:” 1. knowing the true odds, 2. seeing the earliest warning signals, and 3. constantly comparing risk profiles. He provides quite a lot of material about each of these, with numerous example tables, and a worksheet for #3 to compare one's company with a key competitor. One thing that I suspect would be very useful for a lot of companies would be the last part of the book, which outlines, over several pages, a half-day workshop to use the various tools in the book to determine one's “strategic risk and upside profile”.

Needless to say, The Upside is not a “general reader” or “all and sundry” book, although it's an interesting enough read, with a lot of fascinating info. It's also getting a bit “vintage” at this point, having come out in 2007, so there are sectionss which seem like real old news from today's standpoint. However, it is still in print in the hardcover (so it certainly must have its audience!), and the on-line big boys are offering it at 49% off of cover. It is available from the new/used guys too, with “very good” copies that can be had for the ever-popular price of 1¢ (plus shipping). If this sounds like something you'd find of interest, you should certainly have no excuse to not pick up a copy.

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Saturday, April 2nd, 2016
10:23 am
Sort of like "brain freeze"
Sooo ... I've been under a lot of psychological stress over the past couple of weeks, above and beyond my baseline angst/depression/rage/hopelessness. The source of this? LiveJournal. Yep, "sweet home LJ". Now, this was not centered here, but on my "book review blog", which had, right in the middle of working on some updates flipped over to a "suspended journal" status.

I was, of course, totally "WTF???!!!" over this. I've had that up for over a decade, and, content-wise, it's pretty much just a re-posting from here of my book reviews (from back in the day when I had a lot more content up here and wanted to have a place to point people to just for the reviews and not all my whining and bitching).

Now, I have a couple of "projects" which I use to help me "duck" depression most days ... having found that if I can immerse myself in some work (WHICH WOULDN'T BE A F'N ISSUE IF I HAD A F'N JOB, DAMMIT!), the mental place I'm in is all about the doing and not about the feeling, and so I'm not miserable. When the review blog went away, I suddenly realized that both my major projects involved it ... leaving me in a simmering mess of neurosis. These two projects are 1) building a database (well, spreadsheet) of all my reviews that will hopefully be a searchable thing to let people find specific authors/titles over there (amid the current 700+ books covered), and 2) putting together print collections of my reviews. Both of these are big huge mountains to climb (if I put my nose down and just did those all day, it would take me nearly two months to get "finished" with them ... so, with a few hours here and there, those projects are a reliable refuge for the foreseeable future to let me side-step my on-going emotional anguish).

I think I've mentioned in here how much time the book part of that takes (about a half-hour per entry to get it from the blog to a finished page in MSPublisher - multiply that by as many as 79 reviews/year over a dozen years), but the other is fairly complex as well. Much of this is due to plain old OCD, but it also involves having to edit a lot of links in both versions (that and this journal's posts). One of the challenges of having long-running web real estate (this being up for 15+ years, that for 10+) is that a lot of stuff outside of the page changes, and, unless you go in and edit it, the stuff on the page just ends up broken or non-functional.

A long time ago, I "hosted" my images on AOL, until they changed their settings making it hard to link in to them over there. At that point (long before LJ came up with "scrapbook"), I moved over to a service called WebLogImages.com, which, as one could guess from the name, was specifically for hosting stuff for one's "WebLog". Unfortunately, a few years ago, they up and went out of business, leaving a LOT of broken resource links ... including my little "BTRIPP" sig graphic.

Also, back when I was running Eschaton Books (Mark I), I had an early Amazon Affiliate account, and the links in my reviews were formatted for that. Unfortunately, the Vile Kleptocracy of Illinois decided that they wanted "a piece of the action" from Amazon (one of five states doing so), and, rather than submitting to Hydra-esque compliance, Amazon took its program away from all its Illinois affiliates. So, for years I was still using links (which, fortunately, did still get to the book pages) which had extraneous "dead code" in them. However, a couple of years back, Amazon and the assorted Kleptocratic states come to some sort of "understanding" and once again I was able to set up the possibility (it's not been much of a reality, sadly) of earning a few pennies if somebody clicks through a link and actually buys a copy of the book being discussed.

Additionally, a few years back, I began to use the CMP.LY badges to note when I'd gotten a free book for review and that the links were part of an affiliate program ... so this was more coding that needed to be updated (figuring if I was in those posts editing stuff anyway I might as well add that to the older reviews). At least I was able to do a single block of code for the footer (with the BTRIPP graphic and link to my home page and "generic" versions - the later ones are specific to individual books - of the CMP.LY buttons).

Anyway, this means that for each review I need to re-code two pages (where it shows up on each journal), first with a new link to Amazon, and then with the new footer ... a process that I've been moving backwards in time through the reviews, adding info (author names, book title, review date, Amazon code, both review URLs, and the book's ISBN) to the spreadsheet as I went (at this writing I'm back to January of 2011).

So, what happened?

Well, in the message that finally apologized for the mess, they said "one of our anti-spam systems flagged it as a potential spam account", which dovetailed with a comment in their original notification of the suspension (not-too-conveniently sent out in Russian - thank goodness for Google Translate!) which said "a large number of records have been published in your account that contain questionable links". My guess is that the new "amzn.to" short links triggered something (I take it that a lot of "malware" distributors use short links to cloak their nefarious intents), and it took them a couple of weeks (and numerous pitifully pleading messages from me) to get around to checking things out and lifting the suspension.

Which brings me to the title of this post ... much like how good it feels when the "brain freeze" of too-rapidly consuming a Slurpee stops, having the totally-unjust suspension of my book review blog lifted feels so wonderful ... if only in returning to the status quo!

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Tuesday, March 29th, 2016
3:00 pm
More like 53 skills in 11 groupings ...
It's a funny thing. This is the third of Dave Kerpen's books that I've reviewed, and they've all come into my hands as prizes for “live Tweeting” during one of his presentations! I got Likeable Business and Likeable Social Media at a talk he was giving at one of the old “Big Frontier” events, and got his brand-new The Art of People: 11 Simple People Skills That Will Get You Everything You Want for the volume of Tweets I was generating during a recent webinar he was doing. I don't know if Kerpen gives out so many promo copies that this isn't unusual in terms of his book distribution, but it really sort of stands out in my acquisition stream (it could be like that – in Jay Baer's recent book he writes about Kerpen's policy for one-star review he gets on Amazon to apologize and “offers to refund money spent, plus money for the pain and suffering of having read the book”!).

This is a bit of a strange duck, however … with its structure being one of its strong points … if sort of masking its avowed intent as expressed in the subtitle 11 Simple People Skills That Will Get You Everything You Want (there I go again, having problems with a subtitle). I was about half-way through the book when I began to wonder when we were going to learn about these 11 “skills” … having not really registered that the book was set up in 11 sections (each having 4-6 small – the book's only 250 or so pages long – chapters looking at particular “skills” … I guess going with “53 Simple People Skills” would have had less shelf appeal in sounding somewhat overwhelming).

To give you an idea of the arc of the book, here are the titles for those 11 sections:
1. Understanding Yourself and Understanding People
2. Meeting the Right People
3. Reading People
4. Connecting with People
5. Influencing People
6. Changing People's Minds
7. Teaching People
8. Leading People
9. Resolving Conflict with People
10. Inspiring People
11. Keeping People Happy
Needless to say, while those are broad-stroke “skills”, they're not very specific (or actionable), so there's the 53 individual topics to deal with. Each of these run 3-4 pages, and conclude with a “FAST” (First Action Steps to Take) section, with three or four suggestions for taking action on the specific topic. This structure makes what could have been a bit of a brow-beating something more like a simple walk-though of bite-size ideas.

Now, I'm really going to try to not “go negative” here, but there were several points where I was seriously questioning what he was doing in some of the sections … from trotting out some long-since-debunked “saws” popular with “personal development” speakers (like the “93 percent of communication is non-verbal” meme, which I was able to find – in a couple of minutes on my phone while reading in the park – that the primary researcher of the study Kerpen cites here had very specifically noted was taken grossly out of context and was not generalizable beyond the extremely narrow scope of the study … why doesn't anybody ever check these things?), to starting the book with a section dismissing the Myers-Briggs categories in favor of the “Enneagram” model (which is, of course, submitted in its watered-down “newspaper horoscope” later-day form popular with corporate trainers, rather than the complete system propagated by Gurdgieff and Ouspensky with essential complexities such as “shock points”, etc.). What I found especially confusing was that from starting the book with this salvo (and dedicating 12 pages to an appendix for an assessment you can do to find “your enneagram type”) this never came up again … making me wonder if the author had a business relationship with, or at least owed a big favor to, the guy whose organization is promoted as a resource for enneagram info!

The other thing that one might find unexpected in a book purporting to impart skills, is that this is largely structured as a series of personal stories illustrating how the author encountered, learned from, overcame, etc., things related to the various individual “skills” (the 53 specific ones) … making this less of a “manual” and more of a tale of “how Dave learned about this stuff” (and how he'd suggest you work on these). While this certainly makes The Art of People a more breezy read, it also makes it a whole less direct than it might have been (and you know how little I connect with “teaching stories”).

These gripes aside, there is quite a lot of very good material in here, some of it I found immediately of use (despite being an Enneagram Type 5: “Striving to be Detached” – meaning that my main “people skill” is trying to avoid having to deal with 'em!). One of these came in a very early chapter titled “How to Understand Someone Better Than You Do Your Friends (in Just Three Minutes)”, which talks about a conference where the speaker was attempting to do just that for the audience. He gave, in sequence, three questions for each to pose to somebody next to them, with a minute each to get both responses. As I tend to have a hard time caring what's important to other people, I found this fascinating. The questions were:
“What is the most exciting thing you're working on right now?”,
“If you had enough money to retire and then some, what would you be doing?”, and
“What is your favorite charity organization to support and why?”
What is probably most telling about this is Kerpen's note that:
Although Steven and I exchanged a few emails after the event, it's been over two years since that first and only conversation I had with him. But here's the really interesting thing: It's been over two years, yet I still recall with ease the content of that conversation. I still know more about Steven after three minutes over two years ago than I do about most of my casual friends from high school, college, and work.
He goes on to suggest a list of 10 questions, and in the FAST section recommends picking 3 of them and using them as ice breakers at one's next social setting … I just might take him up on the suggestion.

I found the next chapter, “Be Interested Instead of Interesting” of use as well (as I do tend to “bloviate”, in O'Reilly's terminology), this is condensed into a bullet point (or, in the book, a free-standing quote on its own page) as “The secret to getting people to adore you is to shut up and listen.”, even to the point of deflecting courtesy questions from the other person and making it “their turn” to speak again. This is followed up in subsequent chapter with:
Listen to understand, authentically try to connect deeply with people, help them feel less lonely, and you will find yourself far more able to influence them.
… in which Kerpen stresses the “authenticity” part (which, sadly, brings my cynical mind the classic quote of Jean Giraudoux: “The secret of success is sincerity. Once you can fake that you've got it made.”). These concepts come up later in the context of the aforementioned non-verbal communication (not 93%, but a useful thing to keep in mind), and in concepts like “mirroring” (where you parrot back wordings used by the person you're speaking with in terms like “I hear you saying”, and similar). On this latter point the author says:
      People in general don't want advice even when they ask for it. They just want to feel heard. As you practice and get good at mirroring, you will help people feel heard, and they will love you for it. Focus on really emphasizing the “feeling words” you hear as well; mirroring feelings is much more valuable than mirroring thoughts.
Again, there is a LOT of interesting items in here, including “validation”, “simple keys to networking” (develop a “signature style” – Kerpen has owned 29 pairs of orange shoes, making him stand out in pretty much any crowd), how to “help people come up with your idea”, acting with confidence, making “the ask” (it's amazing how often the actual “ask” doesn't happen), build teams of advisors and accountability coaches, using the phenomena of “mirror neurons” to do what are essentially Jedi Mind Tricks on audiences (project what you want to have them mirror), using LinkedIn to connect with people you might not be otherwise able to (and using it to introduce other people to folks you think they should know), and even “Be Unoriginal”. This last one leads into the second appendix, where Kerpen presents fourteen pages of quotes, and a link to a site he's set up with even more … which he recommends using in talks, meetings, and even social media postings, which he justifies with:
There truly is very little original thought left out there, so why shouldn't we take advantage of the brilliant minds of the past and borrow the words they used to convey ideas and inspire others?
One other thing he suggests that I had some resonance with was the suggestion to start sending out actual, physical, thank-you cards. He starts this chapter talking about a “barely legible” card he'd gotten from the CEO of a big company that he'd interviewed for a previous book, and how great it made him feel (which makes me feel better about getting cards out, as I've got a chicken-scratch which looks like some bizarre crossing of Klingon and Linear B). This also dove-tails with a bit from Robert B. Cialdini's Influence where a car salesman created a huge business by sending out thousands of cards a month to his contact list. I'm additionally reminded of a story from my youth, when my Mom's friend, Bishop Montgomery (who I was amazed to Google is still alive, albeit in his mid-90's) was always so prompt with thank-you cards that my Mom jokingly accused him of mailing them on the way to the dinner/event they were about.

Anyway, I found The Art of People useful, if not as focused as its subtitle would suggest (it really is “11 broad categories” in which the 53 could-be-called skills are collected), and it has a good deal to do with the author's life experiences. There was stuff that “raised my hackles”, stuff I found exciting, and a lot of stuff that I just didn't connect with at all (hey, according to the book's companion site, I'm a “People Rookie” who “may just not like other people very much”, so there's that!).

At this writing, the book's been officially out for under two weeks, so is likely to be all over the brick-and-mortar stores handing this sort of thing … and, of course, the on-line behemoths have it, with discounts of a bit more than a third off of cover price. I'm sort of on the fence on this one, there's elements I liked, parts I didn't, but generally found it something I'm glad to have read. Given that a lot of my resistance to this is likely based in me being a curmudgeonly misanthrope of a non–“people person”, I suspect that others … who find the dominant fauna on our planet more engaging that I do … will find this more agreeable as well!

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Saturday, March 26th, 2016
8:02 pm
A different side ...
As regular readers of this space know, I find a lot of quite interesting books at dollar stores, the rather random nature of what shows up where in that channel lending a signature serendipity to my to-be-read piles. One thing I have discovered is that there is no systematic distribution of individual titles (i.e., four copies to every store in a particular area), with some books only being at one location, and a different “mix” in different regions. Because of this, I always look forward to checking out the Dollar Trees when I'm out of town, and a week or so back I was attending a demo at my elder daughter's college, and made a point to check out the one near our hotel. I found a couple of promising titles there, one of them being Love Is the Cure: On Life, Loss, and the End of AIDS by famed rock & roll legend Elton John.

I was a big fan of the author in the 70's, certainly from 1971's Madman Across The Water (which still is one of our “road trip” CDs), and was thrilled to get so see him a few years back, when I was trying to shift gears to a bartending career (I was working temp at a big event Allstate was doing down in Millennium Park, where he was the headliner). I had, however, sort of drifted away musically over the past couple of decades, so hadn't been “following” him much, and by the time this book picks up (in 1985), he was pretty much off my radar, aside, of course, for the mega-hits (like cuts from The Lion King) that were hard to avoid.

The book starts with the author flipping through a magazine in a doctor's office, and seeing an article about Ryan White, an Indiana teen who had hemophilia, and had contracted HIV via a clotting agent used to treat his disease. Reading this article set John on a trajectory that led to both his sobriety and the founding of the Elton John AIDS Foundation.

This is an intensely personal tale, but it is, ultimately, more a missive from the head of the EJAF than strictly being an autobiographical piece. On one level, John is nearly perfectly positioned to tell the story of HIV/AIDS, as he was in the thick of the “gay community” in the years that it was being ravaged by the disease. At several points, he mentions that it's pretty much a miracle that he didn't get AIDS, as so many of his friends (he cites some really atrocious body counts), succumbed to it. He also got to see (as he attempted to help Ryan White, and other victims around the country) how spotty the care was, when there was any, and this sparked him to want to do something.

However, before he could be effective helping others, he needed to get his act together. A couple of months after Ryan's funeral, John had something of an intervention with his boyfriend at the time, which resulted in him finally deciding that he needed to get help. At this point he was dealing with a wide array of addictive behaviors, involving cocaine, alcohol, food, and sex. He notes:
What made matters harder was that there were even few rehab facilities that were willing to treat multiple problems at once. Dual diagnosis was discouraged, for reasons I still do not agree with. Most treatment centers expected you to go to one facility to be treated for your eating disorder before you went to another for your drug addiction, and then yet another for alcoholism. That wasn't acceptable to me. I felt very strongly at the time (and I still do) that all of my problems had the same root cause, and that I couldn't treat one without treating them all. Luckily, we found a place in Chicago that would take me in and treat all my addictions at once … Six weeks after I entered the program {in July}, I was released. It was September 1990. I returned to London ...
I was fascinated by the parallels, as I went into a sobriety program in July of 1985 (in Chicago), and got out six weeks later … and, like John, have been “clean and sober” since.

A few months after his release he relocated to Atlanta, and was involved with assisting HIV service groups there, but in the fall of 1992 Elizabeth Taylor asked him to participate in a HIV/AIDS fundraiser that her foundation was doing at Madison Square Garden in NYC, and this inspired him to start up his own foundation, specifically focused on AIDS. One of the primary elements contributing to the success of the EJAF was from the realization:
… very early on, we made a key decision: our job would be to raise the money, and we would build partnerships to get it into the right hands. With the help of experts on our board … this is how we would proceed.
      We did an extensive search and were lucky – extraordinarily lucky – to find the National Community AIDS Partnership. … What
{was} understood in those early years was essential: with so many separate organizations providing their own services to their own regions, we needed something that would help us respond to the crisis in a truly coordinated and strategic way. …
      The goal of the partnership wasn't just to collect money and distribute it; it was to mobilize social service organizations that already existed, that already had infrastructure, and to turn their attention to HIV/AIDS.
John, his associates, and media friends were called upon to help encourage congress to accelerate both assistance to those effected by the disease, but also to the core research looking for a cure. Aside from the main foundation in the US, John also opened up a sister operation in the UK, which is responsible not only for programs there, but around the world. As horrific as the situation was in America, where AIDS patients were frequently shunned and made pariahs, the stories the author relates about the situation in Africa are remarkable in their savagery:
In 2009, South Africa's Medical Research Council conducted a study surveying the extent of the rape crisis {largely driving the HIV/AIDS epidemic there}. Researchers found that one-quarter of the men interviewed admitted to raping someone. Another study found that more than 60 percent of boys over the age of eleven believed that “sex is a male's natural entitlement and forcing a girl to have sex does not constitute a rape nor an act of violence.”
      If a society doesn't think there's anything wrong with rape, then anybody who speaks out against it will be stigmatized. One rape survivor in South Africa told the international relief organization Médecins Sans Frontières, “People laugh at me and say, 'Oh, you will get HIV/AIDS now.' These are my neighbors and people who live around me. They don't seem to think the men that raped me did anything wrong.”
To at least attempt to address this systematic cultural depravity, the EJAF along with Médecins Sans Frontières and a number of local organizations, have started a 24/7 acute care and support center in outskirts of Cape Town. He also discusses issues in Thailand, programs in the Ukraine, projects in Haiti, and in America's deep south (portions of which seem to be indistinguishable from Third World hell-holes). While the Clinton's organization has been involved in HIV programs, it was G.W. Bush whose administration actually pushed through serious governmental involvement in the AIDS crisis, announcing, in his 2003 State of the Union address, the initiative known as PEPFAR – the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. This initially was slated to devote $15 billion from 2003 to 2008, and was renewed in 2008 at nearly triple that, $48 billion. Needless to say, this was a shock to John (and probably most of the AIDS community) and he eventually had a chance to talk with Bush when Elton John was awarded the lifetime achievement Kennedy Center Honors in 2004, he says:
I remember having the greatest conversation with him. He was warm, charming, and very complimentary, not only about my music but also about the work of my foundation. He knew all about what we were doing, and he was endlessly knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS as well.
John is considerably less charitable with the Catholic Church, and specifically Pope John Paul II, and (to a slightly lesser extent) Pope Benedict XVI, both of whom issued official proclamations claiming that condoms are ineffective at preventing the spread of AIDS – dooming thousands to horrible deaths in Africa and Latin America.

One of the most interesting things discussed here is how preventable AIDS is. John compares it to various other diseases:
Consider the difference between AIDS and cancer. If you were able to treat everybody with cancer on the planet, if you could give everyone the best, most cutting-edge treatment possible, other people would still get cancer. And, sadly, a lot of those who received treatment would still die. … But, at this point, if all AIDS research were to suddenly stop, if we were never able to make another discovery in our understanding of the HIV virus, we could still beat it. We could save the life of nearly every HIV-positive person and prevent all future infections. … In 2011, researchers funded by the U.S. Government made a miraculous discovery: people living with HIV who receive treatment are up to 96 percent less likely to pass on the virus to a sexual partner. In other words, current treatments are so effective that they reduce the presence of the HIV virus in an infected person's body to almost nil. … That means treatment is also prevention.
John follows this up with a look at what it would take to get there … dollar by dollar. “We know how to end AIDS, and we know what it would cost: an additional $5 to $7 billion each year from now until 2020, and not very much more than we're spending today beyond that.” To put that number in context, he trots out some interesting figures … Americans spend $16.9 billion on chocolate per year, in the first quarter of 2012 Apple made profits of $13 billion, and “a handful of Wall Street banks” in 2010 paid out a whopping $20.8 billion in bonuses to employees and executives. He also does some math voodoo to compare the US national budget to something that one could wrap one's mind around … if the budget had $3,700 in the checking account, would you spare $5 to $7 “to save millions upon millions of lives”? Or, put another way, for “a rounding error in the federal budget – the United States could single-handedly end AIDS”.

Love Is The Cure (I'm sure Robert Smith would agree … had to get that in here somewhere) is still in print, but having hit the dollar stores, the on-line after-market has “like new” used copies for as little as a penny (plus shipping). Elton John has done a masterful job at pleading his case (again, this is largely a thesis by him as head of the EJAF), while providing enough “inside story” on his amazing life to keep it “juicier” than a book from a NGO would likely be. It initially came out in 2012, so is fading a bit on the “today's headlines” side of things, but as a history of AIDS, and what has been done to battle it, and what could be done to battle it, it stands pretty solidly on its own.

This is one that I pretty much would recommend “to all and sundry”, as it's a topic that everybody should at least be conversant with, and given that it can be found for a minimal investment (although regular sales go to support EJAF, if you don't mind shelling out a few more bucks), you should consider picking up a copy.

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Friday, March 18th, 2016
2:32 pm
"... Messing With My Mind!"
In the reading that I do, I will frequently come across books referenced in other books, which are variously praised and recommended. I have, unfortunately, developed a fairly cynical view of “highly recommended” books, because, frankly, so many of them are “meh” at best. This one is an exception to that rule … Robert B. Cialdini's much-lauded Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion is a truly exceptional book, and I'm very pleased to have made the effort (OMG – I paid retail … or at least Amazon's discounted version thereof) to get it.

I think the power of this book comes from the combination of efforts that Dr. Cialdini put into researching it, not only in the classic college laboratory setting with student volunteers, but also going out in the field, with his becoming a participant observer:
… Participant observation is a research approach in which the researcher becomes a spy of sorts. With disguised identity and intent, the investigator infiltrates the setting of interest and becomes a full-fledged participant in the group to be studied. So when I wanted to learn about the compliance tactics of encyclopedia (or vacuum-cleaner, or portrait-photography, or dance-lesson) sales organizations, I would answer a newspaper ad for sales trainees and have them teach me their methods. Using similar but not identical approaches, I was able to penetrate advertising, public-relations, and fund-raising agencies to examine their techniques. Much of the evidence presented in this book, then, comes from my experience posing as a compliance professional, or aspiring professional, in a large variety of organizations dedicated to getting us to say yes.
      One aspect of what I learned in this three-year period of participant observation was most instructive. Although there are thousands of different tactics that compliance practitioners employ to produce yes, the majority fall within six basic categories. Each of these categories is governed by a fundamental psychological principle that directs human behavior and, in so doing, gives the tactics their power. This book is organized around these six principles, one to a chapter. The principles – consistency, reciprocation, social proof, authority, liking, and scarcity – are each discussed in terms of their function in society and in terms of how their enormous force can be commissioned by a compliance professional who deftly incorporates them into requests for purchases, donations, concessions, votes, assent, etc.
What he found in his research is both fascinating and scary. I have a very low tolerance to “being manipulated”, so I was being quite reactive to a lot of the stories in here … on one hand hating those applying these techniques, and on the other hand being amazed that so many people are thoughtlessly taken in by them. These range from the mild (the quote by the character "Face" from the old The A-Team TV show comes to mind: “That's not even a real smile. It's just a bunch of teeth messing with my mind!”), to the truly horrific (the classic Milgram Study, and similar).

One of the things that I really liked, structurally, in the book was the inclusion of a “How To Say No” section in each chapter – allowing the reader to walk away from each technique with a framework for not being influenced by it (or not as much as one might be), and a “Reader Report” which features a story sent in by somebody on one side or another of the influence game illustrating the principle at hand in that chapter. These both provide a pattern in the information, but also shift the frame a bit, leading to a more nuanced view of these techniques in action. Another thing I found quite endearing was the author's “catch phrase”, as it were, of Click, whirr!, indicating where “Click, and the appropriate tape is activated; whirr and out rolls the standard sequence of behaviors.” … except for when it's not the appropriate reaction – the initial instance of this was dealing with turkeys (who acted maternally to anything making the “cheep cheep” call of baby turkeys – even if the sound was coming from a stuffed predator that would have been viciously attacked otherwise), or robins (who would territorially defend against anything with red breast feathers, but ignore perfect replicas of competitors without that one triggering element), but Cialdini generalizes that out to any pre-programmed behaviors … including ones we exhibit: “there are many situations in which human behavior does not work in a mechanical, tape-activated way, what is astonishing is how often it does”.

The book is chock-full of amazing cases … things that one would think couldn't possibly be real, but there's solid research on these. An example is (in the “consistency” chapter) how agreeing to a small step will prime you for a major step later … in this study, experimenters had gone through suburban neighborhoods asking people to take a small (3”square) sign saying “be a safe driver”, and nearly everybody did. Two weeks later, other experimenters came through both the original neighborhoods and a set of “control” neighborhoods that hadn't been asked to take the small sign. These were now requesting to put a very large, unattractive “drive carefully” sign in the subjects' front lawns. As one might expect, in the control group, most – 83% – said no, but in the group that had previously taken the tiny sign, an amazing 76% agreed to let the billboard be installed in front of their homes! It appears that simply acceding to the minor request changed the view these people had of themselves into something that “consistency” forced them to also agree to the later unreasonable request. The author warns:
… be very careful about agreeing to trivial requests. Such an agreement can not only increase our compliance with very similar, much large requests, it can also make us more willing to perform a variety of larger favors that are only remotely connected to the little one we did earlier. It's this second, general kind of influence concealed within small commitments that scares me. … It scares me enough that I am rarely willing to sign a petition anymore, even for a position I support. Such an action has the potential to influence not only my future behavior but also my self-image in ways I may not want. And once a person's self-image is altered, all sorts of subtle advantages become available to someone who wants to exploit that new image.
He goes on to discuss, in detail, Chinese-run POW camps in the Korean War. There were constant pressures to make concessions (writing essays to win a piece of fruit or a few cigarettes) that would then provide the basis of further expansions on themes the Communists wanted expressed, moving in tiny increments from one self-image to a new one that could be exploited for propaganda, etc. Similarly he notes how Amway tries to have its reps get the customer to fill out the order form … leading them to be more convinced that they wanted what they were ordering.

One of the useful things in the “social proof” chapter is spun out of the studies around the notorious Kitty Genovese murder, where dozens of witnesses saw the (long drawn out) attack, but no one did anything, even calling the police … each assuming “somebody else” was helping. The author recommends, if one is in an emergency situation, singling out one person in the environment and specifically asking for help … this breaks through the “pluralistic ignorance effect” and spurs individuals into action. Cialdini describes an accident he had been in, where, just like in the research, nobody was stopping to help … he realized what was happening and directly addressed drivers cruising by to call the police, etc. Also in this chapter there is one of the hardest-to-believe studies … the pattern of suicides that follow stories of suicides in the media – which apparently trigger additional suicides: “within two months after every front-page suicide story, an average of fifty-eight more people than usual killed themselves” – a pretty shocking statistic, which is made creepier by the analysis that the follow-up suicides were predictably among people similar in age, sex, race, etc., to the initial death … and really disturbingly: “the average number of people killed in a fatal crash of a commercial airliner is more than three times greater if the crash happened one week after a front-page suicide story than if it happened one week before”! The author finds this sufficient horrific that he notes:
Evidently, the principle of social proof is so wide-ranging and powerful that its domain extends to the fundamental decision for life or death. … A glance at the graphs documenting the undeniable increase in traffic and air fatalities following publicized suicides, especially those involving murder, is enough to cause concern for one's safety.
He goes on to note that homicides have similar patterns of increase following news of killings (like those don't happen on a daily basis in places like Chicago!), and he then takes an extensive look at the mass suicides in Guyana, and how Jim Jones was able to control the People's Temple faithful to the extent that they'd kill themselves at his command.

In the “liking” chapter, there are all sorts of things in play, attractiveness, similarity, and even blatantly insincere compliments. One study of Canadian federal elections found that attractive candidates got 2.5x the votes of unattractive candidates … although, when surveyed, three quarters of the voters outright denied this happening, with only 14% even being open to the possibility. Lots of salesmen do “cold reads” for any clues of attitudes and interests of their prey … and fabricate stories that correspond to those as a way of connecting. I guess the guy in a recent commercial for a shaving system is dead on, where he's in a waiting area for a job interview with a bunch of other candidates, and notices that the portraits of the company's leadership all feature bald/shaved heads … he bolts out, gets shaving gear, and comes back as the only one among the hopefuls that now looks like the company's guy. As far as compliments, “Positive comments produced just as much liking for the flatterer when they were untrue as when they were true.”, and “this was the case even though the men fully realized that the flatterer stood to gain from their liking him” … giving support to the strategy of one featured car salesman who sent out 13,000 cards to his contact list every month with the simple message “I like you!” on seasonably-themed cards. Also in this chapter are looks at integration failures, good cop / bad cop interrogation dynamics, and how TV weather people get blamed (and sometimes attacked) for the weather.

Aside from the Milgram material in the “authority” section, there are some factors looked at that also give one pause … like how an actor who has played a doctor on TV can be effectively used to push products with his “medical” expertise (Robert Young / “Marcus Welby” for Sanka for example), or how clothes/cars/accessories can stand in for actual achievement. Another tactic familiar to everyone is the “scarcity” approach, from on-going “going out of business” sales (there was one luggage shop on Michigan Avenue here which had been “going out of business” for at least a decade before the building was eventually torn down), to the holiday toy scam of creating a demand that goes unfilled at the end of the year, only to be made widely available (“but you promised!”) a month or so later (although that latter story is actually in the “consistency” chapter).

Obviously, there is a whole lot in Influence, and I've only been able to skim through some of the highlights here. This is such an eye-opener that it's definitely one of those “all and sundry” recommendations … you need to read this!

It's currently available in both paperback and ebook editions, and I suspect that you'd be able to find this at most bigger brick-and-mortar book stores. The on-line big boys, however, have it for a whopping 44% off at this writing, making it as cheap to get that way as picking up a used copy (plus shipping). Again, this is well worth your time, and is even something that I wish they'd make required reading in the schools.

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Thursday, March 17th, 2016
12:14 pm
Getting visible ...
Soooo … I hate it when I sit down to write a review and discover that I'd put in exactly zero little bookmarks to lead me back to choice bits in the text … and I just discovered that this is one of those cases. I'm rather confused by this, as the lack of bookmarks is frequently the effect of my not productively interfacing with the book, yet I had found this one engaging, entertaining, and reasonably informative … but, obviously, never felt moved to stick a marker in there. Odd.

Anyway, I'd run into some mention of David Avrin's It's Not Who You Know, It's Who Knows YOU! A Practical Business Guide to Raising Your Profits By Raising Your Profile somewhere on-line (I don't recall where, but I do remember trying to track down his publisher – unsuccessfully – to request a review copy … they've not got much of an on-line presence, and are “coincidentally” located in the same small Colorado town as the author, so I'm guessing this was, essentially, self-published). I ended up looking over on Amazon and was able to score a very good copy of the the hardcover (signed, even!) from the new/used vendors for well under a buck (plus shipping).

The author presents himself as “The Visibility Coach” (http://visibilitycoach.com), with a focus on marketing and strategic branding. The format of the book is a lot of 1-3 page topics (70, if my count is right), grouped in three main sections: Your Brand, Creating Awareness, and The Pitch … each closing with a “The Visibility Coach says:” banner with some pithy comment on the preceding section (with every one of these including his logo, which I found irritating in its incessant repeating, yet forgivable in the context of a “personal branding” screed).

What I found especially confusing in my not having marked anything here is the realization that I've already used references to material in other contexts! One would think that I'd have targeted those for later use – guess I was breezing through this too fast to “stop and mark the proses” {sorry about that}. Of course, in my defense, a large collection of individual bits, loosely assembled into a few thematic sections, doesn't build much of a narrative arc … so a lot of the “good bits” just flew by, and I was into the next part before realizing that the last one was choice.

This leaves me in a position to do some “cherry picking” via a scan-through of the text … not ideal, but hey. I guess I'll start with the above-noted bit that I already used. I was posting in my main blog about the re-release of one of my old poetry collections, and was contemplating the market (or lack thereof) for all my emo navel-gazing. This refers to Avrin's piece on what he calls the “Sesame Street Strategy”, which starts out talking about the career decline of Donny Osmond, moves into the disastrous mid-stream moves of Maxim magazine (when they sought to change with their initial readers, rather than target a particular “self-replicating market”), and eventually ends up on Sesame Street:
      In fact, if you have a self-replicating market, you can often continue to offer products and services to each new batch of customers that comes along. I call this the Sesame Street Strategy. How is it that Sesame Street has stayed on the air for more than 40 years? Because every year there is a new crop of five-year-old children (gleaned from the ranks of last year's four-year-olds) hungry for learning and entertainment. Companies … {addressing this market} … continue to grow and thrive because kids inexplicably seem to keep being born and growing up – needing to learn stuff. Who knew?
The author uses this to pose the question if your business has to keep changing to chase after your existing customers, or if you have a new batch of target customers coming in the door as your previous ones move on.

Of course, the topic of “visibility” keeps coming up, in slightly different contexts. In the wonderfully titled “Schtick Out” piece Avrin notes:
      To become top-of-mind, you need to craft or highlight something about yourself, your message, or your business that is readily and easily identifiable with you – and only you. When you hear someone say, “Yah, it's been done,” it's usually not a very subtle reminder that there is nothing special in copying someone else. So here's the question: What do you do, that only you do?
He lists a number of examples, from the chocolate chip cookies featured at Doubletree Hotels, to the political snark of Ann Coulter. About half the book later, he revisits this with a personal example, which, while approaching obnoxious on one level, is also brilliant for the reasons he details in “See and Be Seen”:
      Some years back, I was attending a conference with my colleagues at the National Speakers Association and having fun zipping around the convention hotel on a Segway scooter. The Segway was brand new at the time and caused a lot of buzz. As I rounded a corner, I passed a woman who said, “Hey, I remember you!” “That's the point!” I said with a smile as I zoomed past.
      For a time, the Segway was my schtick. I used to bring it along as my signature at conferences and conventions around the world. It was a great way to meet far more people than I normally would at such a large event. …
      More important, I always knew that I could call any of the hundreds or even thousands of fellow attendees in the weeks that followed and say, “I was the guy on the Segway.” People would instantly recall who I was and the conversation was a breeze from there. If I'm going to call myself the Visibility Coach, I better be visible!
      My question for you then is: “What are you doing to be noticed and remembered by your prospects?” …
      What are you doing to be seen and remembered? How are you ensuring your top-of-mind status with your clients and prospects?
He does note that most folks don't need to “find some hokey stunt to draw attention to yourself”, but suggests that most could find “a distinctive hook or activity that dovetails nicely into who you are or what you do”.

This isn't just “philosophies” of visibility, however, as there are several sections with direct coaching and practical advice. I especially found the “Good TV” part of interest, as “doing media” can be such a disaster if it's not handled well. This part was especially useful:
      Here's the key to a good media interview: Most reporters don't know the subject nearly as well as the guest. So when a reporter asks you something, answer it briefly and transition into what you really went there to talk about. You can expertly move past the often irrelevant or less important question by simply employing transitional phrases. ...
{he gives several examples}
      Then go on to say what you came there to say, and do it with passion, regardless of the questions asked. If the reporter has something else in mind, don't worry – they'll jump in. Get on the edge of your seat and advocate for your position, organization, product, or crusade, and do it as if you only have one minute to make your case (because that's likely all you do have), and keep talking!
He goes on to point out that answering the questions is not what makes “good TV” – it's presenting a coherent message in a passionate, engaging way.

This “updated version” of It's Not Who You Know, It's Who Knows YOU! has only been out a couple of years, but appears to be out of print (the author's site points over to Amazon, and they only have the ebook version, plus copies through the new/used aftermarket vendors), so will be unlikely to be on the shelves of your local bookstore. If I had one general caveat to pass along about this, it would be that it's more for businesses than individuals, although, obviously from the examples given above, much of the material is applicable to both. I found much of this very useful … and you might too.

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Wednesday, March 16th, 2016
11:41 pm
Whoa ... did I not mention these?
      Yeah, OK ... so readers of my LiveJournal are probably not the #1 best market for this stuff, because you've seen it all before, at least in the pixel version. However, I've started cranking out print versions, in yearly collections, of all my book reviews ... and, frankly, they're pretty cool looking (if I do say so myself). The problem is that these take massive amounts of time - which I totally didn't expect. These involve a whole lot more basic editorial than my poetry books (well, at least the yearly poem collections, which start our with disc files - the chapbooks need almost endless editorial read-through to catch all the scanning artifact errors), about a half hour per review (which, in years where I did 72+ reviews means a good solid 40-hour work week's worth of time). So, appreciate that they EXIST, dammit!

I haven't gotten back to the BIG ones yet, but I'm kind of hoping that the project will develop some traction with the most recent three years' worth before I get hit the longer ones. Frankly, this was a idea that didn't really come from me (OK, I'd designed a cover concept for these - different from what's there now - a few years back), but from a handful of acquaintances who were sure there'd be a market for my reviews in print. I'm not convinced that's the case (you know, like with the poetry, lacking any sales to give me confidence in it), but I liked the idea of getting out another dozen books with my name on them (oh, vanity), and the actual work of doing the lay-out and editing is pleasing (gee, wouldn't it be nice if I could make a living putting out books? ... didn't work for the decade I ran Eschaton full-time, so I don't have any real hope it will work now). It's just hard to justify the huge swaths of time involved to put out yet more books that nobody wants.

Anyway, click on either of those covers up there and you'll be whisked off to the page that lists what books were reviewed that year. Again, regular readers of this space will have already seen these when they came out ... but it's sure handy having them in book form, yes? And, heck, they have a whole section of QR codes in the back that will take you directly to the web page of the reviews (over on my book review blog).

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Monday, March 14th, 2016
2:59 pm
This stuff has been kicking around a lot longer than you think ...
I frequently have mentioned the little book marks (real little, they typically are about 1/8”x1/2” – torn from a register receipt that I'd “prepped” by folding to the needed length) that I put in my books while reading. Most of these are to highlight pages where interesting stuff is happening to regurgitate in these reviews, but others are for my own reference, often to other books. When “the system is working as it should”, I'll note the book being referenced, look it up on Amazon, and either pick up a copy if I'm feeling so inclined, or drop it into a wishlist until I can get a used copy for cheap. Well, this is one of those “other books”. At this point I'm not sure what book I read about this book in (it's been a while since I've read this sort of woo-woo stuff), but it was evidently in one of those “Law of Attraction” things, which referred back to some foundational predecessors of The Secret, etc. This was a bit of a “pig in a poke”, as a 1¢ used copy … and I ended up with a 1969-vintage mass-market paperback edition (there are evidently far more recent ones out there) of Claude M. Bristol's 1948 The Magic of Believing.

I suppose it's easy to think that the whole “attraction” racket is new, but as Mitch Horowitz outlined in his One Simple Idea, and to a certain extent in Occult America, there have been variations of this stuff floating around for ages … so it shouldn't be particularly surprising to have this sort of material dating back to the end of WW2 (when this was composed).

Of course, because it dates from that long ago, there's a LOT of stuff in here which is “different planet” oriented (a world before cell phones, before computers, heck, before TV). It also is yet another reminder of how fleeting fame can be (as anciently noted by Marcus Aurelius), as many of the “celebrities” the author name-checks in here have not maintained name recognition down the decades, leaving the modern reader at a loss for the context that the author, 70-some years ago, assumes these names carry with them.

One of the stark “different world” aspects here is how the author, a “hard-headed journalist” who started his writing career as a correspondent for the Army's Stars and Stripes in World War One (and ended up as an investment banker), was a very public advocate for this “believing” stuff. One of the sub-themes here is how the author was expecting the whole spiritual aspect to life becoming a major scientific area. When he was writing this was back when J.B. Rhine was running a Parapsychology lab at Duke university, and many other major institutions had similar programs. It's interesting that advances made in physics in the wake of the WW2 nuclear program seems to have totally shifted the balance to the physical/easily-measurable sciences and away from the “mystical”, pretty much burying the sort of thing that The Magic of Believing is dealing with for many decades. An example of this is here:
      However, great investigators and thinkers of the world, including many famous scientists, are in the open today, freely discussing the subject and giving the results of their experiments. The late Charles P. Steinmetz, famous engineer of the General Electric Company, shortly before his death declared: “The most important advance in the next fifty years will be in the realm of the spiritual – dealing with the spirit – thought.” Dr. Robert Gault, while professor of Psychology at Northwestern University, was credited with the statement: “We are at the threshold of our knowledge of the latent psychic powers of man.”
Again, the author does not seem to be any sort of “flake”, just a standard hard-boiled businessman of his time, yet he's totally into this “newage” type of approach … using it as a tool the way that his current corporate-world descendants might implement TQM, Agile, or Six Sigma. This doesn't make the “sound” of his pronouncements any less odd in that context, as, while what he says in the book could have been penned yesterday by some totally off-the-deep-end “believer”, this is an established investment banker/journalist coming up with passages like:
      However, most of the sustained and continuing manifestations come as result of belief. It is through this belief with its strange power that miracles happen and that peculiar phenomena occur for which there appears to be no known explanation. I refer now to deep-seated belief – a firm and positive conviction that goes through every fiber of your being – when you believe it “heart and soul,” as the saying goes. Call it a phase of emotion, a spiritual force, a type of electrical vibration – anything you please, but that's the force that brings outstanding results, sets the law of attraction ino operation, and enables sustained thought to correlate with its object. This belief changes the tempo of the mind or thought-frequency, and, like a huge magnet, draws the subconscious forces into play, changing your whole aura and affecting everything about you – and often people and objects at great distances. It brings into your individual sphere of life results that are sometimes startling – often results you never dreamed possible.
One of the interesting features here is that this isn't just “philosophy” - the author charts out specific exercises as well. One of which is “the mirror technique” … which I wish Bristol had written out as a side-bar or something (did they even do “sidebars” back in 1948? I'd think they'd have been challenging to typeset before computers), as he sort of rolls through various examples of using it. In short, it's looking at yourself in the mirror, and:
... look into the very depths of your eyes, tell yourself that you are going to get what you want – name it aloud so you can see your lips move and you can hear the words uttered. … You can augment this by writing with soap on the face of the mirror any slogans or key words you wish, so long as they are the key to what you have previously visualized and want to see in reality.
He recommends that if you're an executive or sales manager, and want to “put more push into your entire organization”, you should teach your employees this technique and “see that they use it”. He goes on from this to discuss “the power of the eyes”, and “that if you act the part you will become that part”, with using the mirror to “rehearse” that act.

I would typically do this earlier in a review, but I think a chapter listing could be useful to get the gist of what's in here:
  1. How I came to Tap the Power of Belief

  2. Mind-Stuff Experiments

  3. What the Subconscious Is

  4. Suggestion Is Power

  5. The Art of Mental Pictures

  6. The Mirror Technique for Releasing the Subconscious

  7. How to Project Your Thoughts

  8. Woman and the Science of Belief

  9. Belief Makes Things Happen
In the “project your thoughts” chapter, he goes into detail on telepathy, including several pages reproducing an article by Dr. Rhine in full. Needless to say, from the perspective of a “physics dominated” culture – where (even in business) “if you can't measure it, it doesn't exist” – it sounds very strange having this sort of material coming from the likes of Mr. Bristol. Somewhat similarly, the chapter on how women can use these techniques (!) sounds bizarre from a modern perspective … although the author is writing from a post- “Rosie the Riveter” renaissance of women in the workforce, the tenor here is that most women wouldn't consider that they could use these mental exercises, and need to be told that they can! Like the old Virginia Slims cigarette tag line put it … things have “come a long way”.

Anyway, The Magic of Believing is an interesting read, and I'm guessing that some of the exercises that Bristol recommends are likely to be reasonably effective. While I picked this up used, you can also find on-line versions for free download … and a more recent pressing of the mass-market paperback I got appears to still be in print – so you could even get it new. If you're interested in “The Secret” and related “law of attraction” stuff, you should probably pick this up, as it's no doubt among the “source documents” for those things.

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Sunday, March 13th, 2016
11:21 pm
Too much of a good thing?
This is another of those “Early Reviewer” books from LibraryThing.com … which has recently been connecting me with a number of books in related areas. Unfortunately, a lot of these have only been so-so (well, let me drop the caveat in here that most of the books that I end up getting through LTER aren't exactly items that I went looking for, but clicked on them on the monthly request list because they “sounded interesting enough”, so going in on these I'm rarely in a “can't wait to read it” mode, and not particularly predisposed to an enthusiastic reaction). While this was, indeed, interesting enough it also only netted three of my little bookmarks, meaning that there wasn't a whole lot “jumping off the page” for me to reference. Of course, this is a somewhat unfair way to preface my review of Dr. H. Gilbert Welch's Less Medicine, More Health: 7 Assumptions That Drive Too Much Medical Care.

Those of you who follow these reviews over on my main blog will realize, I've been through a lot of “medical care” over the last half year or so, and thereby the material here should be pretty much “on target” for me … but somehow this wasn't necessarily the case. The author is a medical doctor who is both a professor at the School of Medicine at Dartmouth, and an internist with the V.A. (most of his stories in the book come from that work). His main area of research has been in the area of cancer screening, and has published books about that, as well as a controversial study in 2012 that indicated that the wide-spread use of mammography was having no appreciable effect of breast cancer death rates. This book essentially is an expansion of the focus of his previous titles, Overdiagnosed and Should I Get Tested For Cancer?, moving into general cultural assumptions about medical care.

Since I don't have a lot of bookmarks here to build a narrative with, I think it might be useful to just run through what these “7 Assumptions” are, and then go into some detail on those:
Assumption #1: All Risks Can Be Lowered
Assumption #2: It's Always Better To Fix The Problem
Assumption #3: Sooner Is Always Better
Assumption #4: It Never Hurts To Get More Information
Assumption #5: Action Is Always Better Than Inaction
Assumption #6: Newer Is Always Better
Assumption #7: It's All About Avoiding Death
Now, presented with that list of propositions, I suspect that most folks would be in agreement all the way down the list … which is, I assume, why Welch wrote this book, as, point-for-point, he presents arguments against each. He actually pairs a “disturbing truth” with each assumption in the chapter headings, and these go:
D.T. #1: Risks can't always be lowered – and trying creates risks of its own.
D.T. #2: Trying to eliminate a problem can be more dangerous than managing one.
D.T. #3: Early diagnosis can needlessly turn people into patients.
D.T. #4: Data overload can scare patients and distract your doctor from what's important.
D.T. #5: Action is not reliably the “right” choice.
D.T. #6: New interventions are typically not well tested and often being judged ineffective (even harmful).
D.T. #7: A fixation on preventing death diminishes life.
All of my little bookmarks are from the middle of the book – in Assumptions #2-4 – so I'm going to let those “disturbing truths” stand on their own as an indication of what's covered in the other chapters, and zoom in to the bits that caught my fancy while reading this.

The most memorable part of this for me was from the third chapter … where Welch splits different types of cancer out into different “critters” … each with a different progression. I was trying to figure a way of communicating this to you briefly, but I'm going to have to break down and type out a few paragraphs to get you what's the essence of this (sorry about that!):
      Let's start with the benefit of cancer screening. It's an important benefit: avoiding a cancer death. At the same time, it's equally important to acknowledge that screening doesn't avoid most cancer deaths. People who are regularly screened still can die from the cancer being screened for. Every randomized trial of screening has shown this. It's not the patient's fault. It's not the doctor's fault. It's not the screening test's fault. Instead it reflects the dynamics of cancer.
      When I was in medical school, I was taught that anything labeled “cancer” would inexorably progress. Once a cell had the DNA derangement of cancer, it was only a matter of time until the cancer spread throughout the body. And it was only a matter of time until it killed the patient.
      But we now recognize the world of cancer is much more diverse. At one extreme, autopsies have shown that many of us have small cancers that never bother us during life – particularly cancers of the prostate, breast, and thyroid gland. At the other extreme, screening programs have shown that early cancer detection doesn't help everyone; many go on to die from cancer despite early detection. These observations bring us to a new conceptual model of cancer – and to turtles, rabbits, and birds.
      It's a barnyard pen of cancers. The goal is not to let any of the animals escape the pen to become deadly. But the turtles aren't going anywhere anyway. They are the indolent, nonlethal cancers. The rabbits are ready to hop out at any time. They are the potentially lethal cancers, cancers that might be stopped by early treatment. Then there are the birds. Quite simply: they are already gone. They are the most aggressive cancers, the ones that have already spread by the time they are detectable, the ones that are beyond cure.
      Screening can only help with the rabbits. The turtles don't need help; the birds can't be helped. The turtles create the problem of overdiagnosis …, the birds create the problem of limited benefit.
The author goes into a lot of data about these various groups, but one particularly caught my eye – it was a 30-year study of 50,000 patients looking at a specific cancer. Half these subjects were systematically screened for this cancer, and half were not. At the end of 30 years, most had died. Of the screened group, 2% died of the cancer, while the non-screened group had a 3% death rate of that cancer – a 33% reduction. That's great, right? Well, it depends. The mortality rate for both groups was “exactly the same” year-in-year-out, with the rate at the end of 30 years being 71% in both groups – “Screening didn't help people live longer. Not even a little bit.” … pretty sobering if one's hoping that having that test is going to improve your longevity.

The next thing I want to bring to your attention is from the second chapter … the one about “fixing the problem”. Welch backgrounds this with a discussion about the “two broad categories of medical research” evidence-based (randomized trials), and observational. He notes that EBR has been mocked by some, inviting researchers such as Welch to review the effectiveness of parachutes by using randomized controlled trials. He counters this with a look at how, indeed, some trials are not ideal, including:
One of the pharmaceutical industry's favorite strategies is to study the effect of a drug on the few patients who have severe disease, find some benefit, and then hope that doctors extrapolate the benefit to many patients with a less severe forms of the disease. It's a cleaver strategy: it's like testing parachutes on the few people who jump out of airplanes and then selling them as protection against falls to the many people who walk downstairs. Severely ill patients always stand to benefit more from intervention than those who are less severely ill … Yet the harms of intervention are roughly equivalent in the two groups. So the net effect of intervention regularly looks better in the severely ill.
The last thing I have marked to bring up is from the information chapter, which has a central story regarding a critique of the opening of an “Information Age” exhibit at the Smithsonian, that Welsh had kept handy for decades:
      Data, information, useful knowledge, wisdom … that's a good vocabulary. Good enough for me to keep the article around for a quarter century. I might tweak the definitions a bit for clinical medicine. Data would be the measure of lung impedence. They would only become information if they reliably told us about the likelihood that the patient would develop a clinical problem (shortness of breath) – a problem that might lead to a hospitalization. The information would become useful knowledge only if we had a course of action that reliably lowered that likelihood. Wisdom requires balancing the benefits and harms of that action – and knowing how the patient values the carious outcomes – to arrive at a decision about what to do.
      Just because you have data doesn't mean you have information. Having information doesn't mean you have useful knowledge. And wisdom – well, that's a whole new ball game.

      The central question of this chapter is whether obtaining more clinical data on individuals with medial problems reliably leads to useful knowledge. The short answer is: no. The natural follow-up question is whether there is any reason – other than cost – not to obtain more clinical data. The short answer is: yes. More clinical data not only can create anxiety for patients, they can also initiate cascades that lead to unneeded medical care.
While the author is, obviously, “flying in the face of” the “common knowledge” about medicine, he's hardly “against it” like the anti-vaxxers and other neo-Luddites out there … but he is saying it's become way too easy for even basic medical care to cascade into complicated, intrusive, expensive, and potentially unneeded care. And, of course, the way our (U.S.) medical system is set up – nobody gets paid for letting a condition simply “run its course” as the body heals itself (or doesn't), so there are systemic financial pressures to act on things that might have better outcomes with inaction.

There is a lot of info in Less Medicine, More Health, with the author describing numerous studies, etc. supporting his assorted points. And, as noted above, he's not averse to admitting the other side has supporting material as well, so it's a much more “balanced” look than one might expect for something going so jarringly against the “assumptions” of modern medical care. He personalizes this with a lot of stories from his own clinical work (mainly in the V.A.), illustrating points with what had happened to various patients he'd encountered. The book, however, doesn't have much of a “story arc”, as it is a detailed look into these relatively thorny issues, so it's hardly “a beach read” (for most folks, at least), but given the universal applicability of medical care, this might have some interest even to the fiction readers out there.

This is brand new (just hitting the shelves a week or so back at this writing), so it should be at least available via your local brick-and-mortar book vendor, but the on-line big boys have it at about 20% off of cover, and, oddly, some of the new/used guys have it new for about half off (plus shipping). While interesting, and applicable to everybody still breathing, I don't think I can call this an “all and sundry” recommendation, as you really have to be into this stuff to get the most out of reading it.

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